✪✪✪ The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s
Views Read Edit View history. Some The Strawberry Short Story, persons, known in Canada as United Empire Loyalists fled the Summary: The Social Reality Of Immigration States or were evacuated after the The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s, coming to Nova Scotia and Quebec where they received land and The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s assistance from the British government in The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s and recognition for having taken up Enders Use Of Valentine Analysis in defence of The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s George III and British interests. Though both men created notable International Style buildings, as seen by Neutra's Lovell Health Housethe aesthetic did not truly flourish in the United States until after World War II, when economic expansion led to a boom in skyscraper construction. American Art - History and Concepts Started: Canadian women at the end of the 20th century enjoyed greater international commercial success than ever before. The The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s market crash brought this prosperity to an abrupt halt, as world economies collapsed The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s the Great Depression. This The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s includes a list of referencesrelated reading or external linksbut its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. In The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920sThe Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s Minister The Manhattan Project: Zillard And Fermi Harper The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s the creation of a new sub-ministerial cabinet portfolio The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s the title Canadian Identity for the first time in Canadian history, naming Jason Kenney to the position of Secretary of State for Multiculturalism and Canadian Identity. Under the direction of Lucien Poirier; compiled by Chantal Bergeron [et al.
Art in 1920's
Canadian women's social, political, and cultural roles and influence changed dramatically during WWII. Women had taken over many of the missing roles of men while they were off at war. Women worked in factories, took over farms, and proved their importance in society. Religion was an important factor in the early stages of the Canadian women's movement. Some of the earliest groups of organized women came together for a religious purpose. When women were rejected as missionaries by their Churches and missionary societies, they started their own missionary societies and raised funds to send female missionaries abroad.
The first of these missionary societies was founded in Canso, Nova Scotia in by a group of Baptist women inspired by Hannah Norris , a teacher who wanted to be a missionary. They formed their own missionary society, and soon there were Presbyterian, Methodist, and Anglican women missionary societies forming across the western provinces, Quebec, Ontario, and the Maritimes. Women's religious organizing was also a means through which women could advocate social change. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union, for example, was formed in by Letitia Youmans of Picton, Ontario, in order to raise awareness of the negative consequences of alcohol consumption on society, and ultimately to ban alcohol and promote evangelical family values.
It grew to establish a Jewish Endeavour Sewing School where they taught girls sewing, Jewish religion and history. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women in Canada were also making inroads into various professions including teaching, journalism, social work, and public health. Grace Annie Lockhart became the first woman in the British Empire to receive a bachelor's degree, providing clear evidence of the justice of women's claim to full rights in the field of higher education.
Stowe's daughter, Augusta Stowe-Gullen , became the first woman to graduate from a Canadian medical school. Women also established and became involved with organizations to advance women's rights, including suffrage. In , the National Council of Women of Canada was formed which was designed to bring together representatives of different women's groups across Canada, providing a network for women to communicate their concerns and ideas. During World War I , women took on not only traditionally feminine jobs, but also heavy work such as in munitions factories. This changed role of women increased women's political prominence, and issues such as women's suffrage were raised. During the s, women adventurers pushed the boundaries of acceptable behavior for women.
From until , Aloha Wanderwell born in Canada became the first woman to travel around the world in a car, beginning her journey at the age of Organizing around women's suffrage in Canada peaked in the mids. Various franchise clubs were formed, and in Ontario, the Toronto Women's Literary Club was established in as a guise for suffrage activities, though by it was renamed the Toronto Women's Suffrage Association. The tactics adopted by the movement in order to bring about reform included collecting petitions, staging mock parliaments and selling postcards. Widows and unmarried women were granted the right to vote in municipal elections in Ontario in Such limited franchises were extended in other provinces at the end of the 19th century, but bills to enfranchise women in provincial elections failed to pass in any province until Manitoba , and Saskatchewan finally succeeded in early Alberta followed the same year and Emily Murphy became the first woman magistrate not just in Canada, but the entire British Empire.
At the federal level it was a two step process. On September 20, , women gained a limited right to vote: According to the Parliament of Canada website, the Military Voters Act established that "women who are British subjects and have close relatives in the armed forces can vote on behalf of their male relatives, in federal elections. The remaining provinces quickly followed suit, except for Quebec , which did not do so until Agnes Macphail became the first woman elected to Parliament in Large numbers of women continued for many years to be excluded from the right to vote, based on race or indigeneity.
British Columbia, for example, denied persons of Asian, Indian Southeast Asian , and Indigenous origin the rights to universal adult suffrage that came about with the Dominion Elections Act of The Famous Five were a group of five women from Alberta who wanted the courts to determine if women were considered to be "persons" for the purposes of being called to the Senate under section 24 of the British North America Act, , the main provision of Canada's constitution. After some debate, the Cabinet did so. The Supreme Court, interpreting the Act in light of the times in which it was written, ruled in that women were not "persons" for the purposes of section 24 and could not be appointed to the Senate.
The five women, led by Emily Murphy , appealed the case to the Judicial Committee of the British Privy Council , at that time the highest court of appeal for the British Empire. They called the earlier interpretation "a relic of days more barbarous than ours". The Eastview Birth Control Trial of — was the first successful legal challenge to the dissemination of information and the possession of materials relating to birth control being illegal in Canada, and it marked the beginning of a shift in Canadian society's acceptance of such practices. As she was working for the Kitchener-based Parents' Information Bureau PIB , her arrest could have led to the collapse of the organization and as many as two years' imprisonment for Palmer.
However, the PIB was the brainchild of industrialist A. Kaufman , a eugenically-minded industrialist whose support eventually saw Palmer's charges dropped. The trial lasted from September to March Ultimately, the case was dismissed by the presiding magistrate Lester Clayon, who ruled that, as Palmer's actions were "in the public good", no charges could be held against her. The mothers are in poor health, pregnant nine months of the year What chance do these children have to be properly fed, clothed and educated? They are a burden on the taxpayer. They crowd the juvenile court. They glut the competitive labour market. Though feminism in Canada continued after the work of the Famous Five, during the Depression and the Second World War feminist activism in Canada was not as clear to see as it was during the fight for suffrage and thereafter.
However, women's engagement in the workforce during the Second World War brought about a new consciousness in women with regards to their place in public life, which led to a public inquiry on the status of women, as well as new campaigns and organizing for equal rights. Whereas the first wave was organized around access to education and training, the second wave of Canadian feminism focused on women's role in the workforce, the need for equal pay for equal work, a desire to address violence against women, and concerns about women's reproductive rights.
During the Second World War, Canadian women were actively pursued by the Canadian government to contribute to the war effort. Prior to the war, some young and unmarried women had already joined the workforce; however, during the war an increased need for female workers arose in many industries due to the depleted pool of male workers who had largely been mobilized to fight in the war. In response to the labour needs of many industries, the Canadian government created a special Women's Division of the National Selective Service to recruit women into the workforce.
The inclusion of women with children into the workforce led the federal government to develop a program known as the Dominion-Provincial Wartime Day Nurseries Agreement in order to assist working mothers with childcare during the duration of the war. Quebec and Ontario took advantage of the agreement and developed childcare facilities such as nurseries and after school programs. Women also contributed to the war effort by volunteering. As soon as the war broke out, many local women's volunteer societies quickly mobilized to contribute to the war effort.
Women in these organizations engaged in a range of activities including: sewing clothes for the Red Cross , cultivating "victory" gardens, and collecting materials like rubber and metal scraps for wartime production. Women also participated in the war by joining the military. The Canadian government expected women to return to their roles in the home once the war ended. When the war finally ended many Canadian women did as the government expected of them and returned to their roles in the home. Yet, in the years following the war, the number of women joining the workforce steadily increased as women's contribution became more and more necessary to sustaining both the home and the economy - a fact addressed by a number of government initiatives.
In , the Government of Canada created a specialized women's department within the Department of Labour, and in , it also passed legislation providing pay equity for women working in the federal civil service. The Royal Commission on the Status of Women was a Canadian Royal Commission that examined the status of women and recommended steps that might be taken by the federal government to ensure equal opportunities with men in all aspects of Canadian society.
Public sessions were conducted the following year to accept public comment for the Commission to consider as it formulated its recommendations. Florence Bird was the Commission's chair. While student aid, education cut-backs and, by the late s, tuition fees may have been the primary policy concerns of the national student organization, there was a definite undercurrent of women student organizing in NUS and on local campuses. As Moses points out p. Moses , pp. The link between women students and late s women's movements has been widely acknowledged.
Yet, as Moses points out, this acknowledgement stops abruptly after ; the activism of youth and students was widely ignored in the historiography of women's movement in the s. This is not something that Moses attempts to explain. It would seem likely that the gap in recognition has something to do with how young women and how women historiographers of the s identified; that is, not as students or youth per se, but as women.
While the women's movement of the s was of course, multigenerational, it was also most certainly in many ways, a significant youth movement and this, as Moses suggests, has not been well understood and acknowledged. The Battered Women's Shelter Movement in Canada emerged predominantly during the late s and early s, within the framework of second wave feminism. The National Action Committee NAC was formed as a result of the frustration of women at the inaction of the federal government in regards to the recommendations of the Royal Commission. Beginning in as a coalition of 23 women's groups, by it had organizational members, including the women's caucuses of the three biggest political parties.
Partly funded by government grants, the NAC was widely regarded as the official expression of women's interests in Canada, and received a lot of attention from the media. In there was a televised debate on women's issues among the leaders of the contending political parties during the federal election campaign. There was no discrimination based on sex, race, religion etc.
It specified that there must be " equal pay for work of equal value ". There had been significant disparity between the pay received by women and by men. With so much division in Canada on what should be included in a bill of rights the federal government decided to hold a Special Joint Committee of the House of Commons and the Senate, which allowed the public to submit amendments to the constitution. The NAC saw the importance of equal recognition in the Charter for both men and women as a way to combat systematic discrimination.
I was just wondering why we don't have a section here for babies and children. All you girls are going to be working and you're not going to have anybody looking after them. In February the National Action Committee scheduled a conference for women on the constitution that was cancelled by the federal government. In response to the cancellation Doris Anderson , president of the Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women and prominent feminist resigned in protest, this act of protest galvanized Canadian women.
Feminist groups were angered at the cancellation of the conference and began to organize their own conference and a coalition was formed, which came to be known as the Ad Hoc Committee of Canadian Women on the Constitution. On February 14, , about 1, women exercised their democratic right and marched into parliament to debate the charter. They were demanding a specific clause on equal rights between men and women. This conference resulted in amendments to Section 15 , which guarantees an equality of rights under the law, along with the creation of Section 28 which states:. Notwithstanding anything in this Charter, the rights and freedoms referred to in it are guaranteed equally to male and female persons.
Even though the Canadian Constitution was established in , the sections on equality were under moratorium and did not come into effect until April 17, A significant concern of second wave feminists in Canada was access to abortion. Until , abortion was a criminal offence under the Criminal Code , and women were dying from trying to procure abortions outside of the law. Abortion remained an offence, unless it was first approved by a Therapeutic Abortion Committee on the grounds that continuation of the pregnancy "would or would be likely to endanger her life or health".
The abortion had to be performed in a hospital rather than in a clinic. The restrictive nature of the abortion law led others to challenge it, including Henry Morgantaler, a prominent Montreal doctor who attempted to establish abortion clinics. In , Morgentaler was charged under the Criminal Code for providing abortions. The case went to the Supreme Court of Canada. In Morgentaler v R , the Court unanimously held that the criminal law provisions were within the constitutional jurisdiction of the federal Parliament. The Court also unanimously held that the provisions did not infringe the Canadian Bill of Rights. A decade later, after the passage of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms , Morgentaler was again convicted under the abortion provision.
This time, when the case reached the Supreme Court, he was successful, in R. Morgentaler in The Court ruled, by a 5—2 majority, that the abortion provision of the Criminal Code infringed the Charter's guarantee of security of the person under section 7. There was no single majority decision. Justice Bertha Wilson , the first woman on the Supreme Court appointed in , wrote one of the strongest opinions striking down the provision. Canada signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in , and ratified it in The third wave of Canadian feminism, which is largely perceived to have started in the early s, is closely tied to notions of anti-racism, anti-colonialism, and anti-capitalism.
Canada recognized female genital mutilation as a form of persecution in July , when it granted refugee status to Khadra Hassan Farah, who had fled Somalia to avoid her daughter being cut. Fourth-wave feminism refers to a resurgence of interest in feminism that began around and is associated with the use of social media. Its essence, she writes, is "incredulity that certain attitudes can still exist". Fourth-wave feminism is "defined by technology", according to Kira Cochrane , and is characterized particularly by the use of Facebook , Twitter , Instagram , YouTube , Tumblr , and blogs to challenge misogyny  and further gender equality.
Issues that fourth-wave feminists focus on include street and workplace harassment , campus sexual assault and rape culture. During the time of fourth-wave feminism, Canada removed its tampon tax in mid following an online petition signed by thousands. Feminism in Quebec has evolved differently from in the rest of Canada, and its history does not necessarily match the idea of the four "waves" conventionally used to describe Canadian feminist history. After Confederation , the provincial government of Quebec continued to be closely associated with the Catholic Church, resulting in the preservation of traditional gender roles.
The conservatism of the then-provincial government, and the privileging of Catholic values contributed to Quebec being the last province in which women received the provincial franchise. By the s, during the Quiet Revolution , many women in Quebec linked the patriarchy that shaped their lives with the colonial domination of English Canada over Quebec's affairs. Equality between the sexes would amount to little if both men and women were subordinated and misrepresented through English values, culture and institutions. Belleau applies a feminist methodology and research framework to the inter-woven issues of national and cultural identity what she terms "nat-cult" , both within Quebec and between the province and the rest of Canada ROC.
She deploys "strategic intersectionality" in order to analyze how feminism is represented in Canada's two main legal systems. With the war over, Canadian military forces discharged troops who needed employment. In , women achieved personhood status, allowing them to serve in parliament. By decade's end, Canada was a diverse, peaceful nation with a hopeful future.
Airplanes, automobiles, movies, radio and jazz music were all novelties in the s. It was an exciting time of technological innovation. Canada introduced its first radio stations in , establishing a Canadian presence on the airwaves and an alternative to American broadcasts. The world's first documentary film, "Nanook of the North," shot in Quebec, was a box office hit.
In , the Canadian ship St. Roch became the first vessel to circumnavigate North America. Meanwhile, Canada's demand for cars steadily increased, expanding the automobile industry, along with highway construction and related businesses. Throughout North America, the s were known as the Roaring Twenties. The era became synonymous with Prohibition, a time when the United States banned alcohol and its illicit consumption flourished. American mobster Al Capone notoriously smuggled liquor to Chicago from distilleries in Saskatchewan. He used underground tunnels in Moose Jaw to evade police.
In , a Canadian rum-running ship sank after being destroyed by the U. Coast Guard. Its surviving crew members were jailed. The U. Prohibition officially ended inLibrary and Archives Canada. This led to the passage of an extremely restrictive immigration law, the The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s Origins Act ofwhich set immigration quotas that excluded some people Eastern Europeans and Asians in favor of others Northern Europeans and people from Great Britain, for example. The most advanced design The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s the six beam housenamed for the number Theme Of Colonialism In Latin America beams that supported The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s roof. But The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s the end, the rebellion helped highlight issues with the articles The Role Of Canadian Art In The 1920s confederation.