❤❤❤ Image Steganography Research Paper
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A Secret Message in an Image: Steganography
Three prototype papers Sensicoat , Anilith , and Coatalith were used to manufacture postcards and stationery provided to German prisoners of war in the US and Canada. If POWs tried to write a hidden message, the special paper rendered it visible. The US granted at least two patents related to the technology, one to Kantrowitz, U. Patent 2,, , patented 20 July A similar strategy issues prisoners with writing paper ruled with a water-soluble ink that runs in contact with water-based invisible ink. In computing, steganographically encoded package detection is called steganalysis.
The simplest method to detect modified files, however, is to compare them to known originals. For example, to detect information being moved through the graphics on a website, an analyst can maintain known clean copies of the materials and then compare them against the current contents of the site. The differences, if the carrier is the same, comprise the payload. In general, using extremely high compression rates makes steganography difficult but not impossible.
Compression errors provide a hiding place for data, but high compression reduces the amount of data available to hold the payload, raising the encoding density, which facilitates easier detection in extreme cases, even by casual observation. There are a variety of basic tests that can be done to identify whether or not a secret message exists. This process is not concerned with the extraction of the message, which is a different process and a separate step.
The most basic approaches of steganalysis are visual or aural attacks, structural attacks, and statistical attacks. These approaches attempt to detect the steganographic algorithms that were used. The size of the message that is being hidden is a factor in how difficult it is to detect. The overall size of the cover object also plays a factor as well. If the cover object is small and the message is large, this can distort the statistics and make it easier to detect. A larger cover object with a small message decreases the statistics and gives it a better chance of going unnoticed.
Steganalysis that targets a particular algorithm has much better success as it is able to key in on the anomalies that are left behind. This is because the analysis can perform a targeted search to discover known tendencies since it is aware of the behaviors that it commonly exhibits. When analyzing an image the least significant bits of many images are actually not random. The camera sensor, especially lower-end sensors are not the best quality and can introduce some random bits. This can also be affected by the file compression done on the image. Secret messages can be introduced into the least significant bits in an image and then hidden.
A steganography tool can be used to camouflage the secret message in the least significant bits but it can introduce a random area that is too perfect. This area of perfect randomization stands out and can be detected by comparing the least significant bits to the next-to-least significant bits on an image that hasn't been compressed. Generally, though, there are many techniques known to be able to hide messages in data using steganographic techniques. None are, by definition, obvious when users employ standard applications, but some can be detected by specialist tools.
Others, however, are resistant to detection—or rather it is not possible to reliably distinguish data containing a hidden message from data containing just noise—even when the most sophisticated analysis is performed. Steganography is being used to conceal and deliver more effective cyber attacks, referred to as Stegware. The term Stegware was first introduced in  to describe any malicious operation involving steganography as a vehicle to conceal an attack. Detection of steganography is challenging, and because of that, not an adequate defence. Therefore, the only way of defeating the threat is to transform data in a way that destroys any hidden messages,  a process called Content Threat Removal.
Some modern computer printers use steganography, including Hewlett-Packard and Xerox brand color laser printers. The printers add tiny yellow dots to each page. The barely-visible dots contain encoded printer serial numbers and date and time stamps. The larger the cover message in binary data, the number of bits relative to the hidden message, the easier it is to hide the hidden message as an analogy, the larger the "haystack", the easier it is to hide a "needle". So digital pictures , which contain much data, are sometimes used to hide messages on the Internet and on other digital communication media. It is not clear how common this practice actually is. For example, a bit bitmap uses 8 bits to represent each of the three color values red, green, and blue of each pixel.
The blue alone has 2 8 different levels of blue intensity. The difference between and in the value for blue intensity is likely to be undetectable by the human eye. Therefore, the least significant bit can be used more or less undetectably for something else other than color information. If that is repeated for the green and the red elements of each pixel as well, it is possible to encode one letter of ASCII text for every three pixels. Stated somewhat more formally, the objective for making steganographic encoding difficult to detect is to ensure that the changes to the carrier the original signal because of the injection of the payload the signal to covertly embed are visually and ideally, statistically negligible. The changes are indistinguishable from the noise floor of the carrier.
All media can be a carrier, but media with a large amount of redundant or compressible information is better suited. From an information theoretical point of view, that means that the channel must have more capacity than the "surface" signal requires. There must be redundancy. For a digital image, it may be noise from the imaging element; for digital audio , it may be noise from recording techniques or amplification equipment. In general, electronics that digitize an analog signal suffer from several noise sources, such as thermal noise , flicker noise , and shot noise. The noise provides enough variation in the captured digital information that it can be exploited as a noise cover for hidden data.
In addition, lossy compression schemes such as JPEG always introduce some error to the decompressed data, and it is possible to exploit that for steganographic use, as well. Although steganography and digital watermarking seem similar, they are not. In steganography, the hidden message should remain intact until it reaches its destination. Steganography can be used for digital watermarking in which a message being simply an identifier is hidden in an image so that its source can be tracked or verified for example, Coded Anti-Piracy or even just to identify an image as in the EURion constellation. In such a case, the technique of hiding the message here, the watermark must be robust to prevent tampering. However, digital watermarking sometimes requires a brittle watermark, which can be modified easily, to check whether the image has been tampered with.
That is the key difference between steganography and digital watermarking. In , the Federal Bureau of Investigation alleged that the Russian foreign intelligence service uses customized steganography software for embedding encrypted text messages inside image files for certain communications with "illegal agents" agents without diplomatic cover stationed abroad. On April 23, the U. Department of Justice unsealed an indictment charging Xiaoqing Zheng, a Chinese businessman and former Principal Engineer at General Electric, with 14 counts of conspiring to steal intellectual property and trade secrets from General Electric. Zheng had allegedly used steganography to exfiltrate 20, documents from General Electric to Tianyi Aviation Technology Co. There are distributed steganography methods,  including methodologies that distribute the payload through multiple carrier files in diverse locations to make detection more difficult.
For example, U. Patent 8,, by cryptographer William Easttom Chuck Easttom. The puzzles that are presented by Cicada incorporate steganography with cryptography and other solving techniques since The communications   of The Mayday Mystery incorporate steganography and other solving techniques since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hiding messages in other messages. For the process of writing in shorthand, see Stenography.
For the prefix "Stego-" as used in taxonomy, see List of commonly used taxonomic affixes. Image of a tree with a steganographically hidden image. The hidden image is revealed by removing all but the two least significant bits of each color component and a subsequent normalization. The hidden image is shown below. Image of a cat extracted from the tree image above. Images hidden in sound files.
Finally, the audio is analysed through a spectrogram, revealing the initial image. Main article: Printer steganography. Goljan; D. Soukal Bibcode : SPIE. S2CID Retrieved 23 January Archived from the original on Retrieved Proceedings of the IEEE. CiteSeerX Digitale Sammlungen. Signal Processing. IBM Systems Journal. IBM Corp. ISSN Archived from the original PDF on Ali Retrieved January 2, In early I realized that it was possible to use zero-width characters, like zero-width non-joiner or other zero-width characters like the zero-width space to fingerprint text. Even with just a single type of zero-width character the presence or non-presence of the non-visible character is enough bits to fingerprint even the shortest text. Liu and W.
Retrieved June 7, ISBN Xiao, Y. Huang, and S. Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, Wiley. February SE 2 : — Berson and T. Beth, eds. First Monday. Institute of Telecommunications Seminar. Recent advances in computational sound scene analysis Deadline for submission: 1 April The objective of Special Issues is to bring together recent and high quality works in a research domain, to promote key advances in theory and applications of the processing of various audio signals, with a specific focus on speech and music and to provide overviews of the state-of-the-art in emerging domains.
The aim of EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing is to bring together researchers, scientists and engineers working on the theory and applications of the processing of various audio signals, with a specific focus on speech and music. Its primary objectives are:. The journal is dedicated to having original research work, but will also allow tutorial and review articles. Articles deal with both theoretical and practical aspects of audio, speech, and music processing.
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