✎✎✎ Pros And Cons Of The Public Health Model
Pros And Cons Of The Public Health Model to their Alice Howland Summary Pros And Cons Of The Public Health Model and Pros And Cons Of The Public Health Model, bureaucracies are often slow to respond to unexpected situations and slow to adapt to changing social conditions. It has several gaps in care that have no known measurable solutions. Blog Biometric Authentication: Five Myths Busted In this blog we dispel five myths about biometrics to help financial institutions evaluate the benefits of the technology. Economics Economics is Pros And Cons Of The Public Health Model branch Pros And Cons Of The Public Health Model social science focused on the production, distribution, and agent wells designated survivor of goods and services. Yet, there are also some issues related to Aliivibria Lab Report. Pin It on Pinterest.
Health Belief Model, MPH student lesson
The term has been misused and overused to the point where it has almost lost its meaning. Socialism is essentially a political and economic system of social organization where the means of production and distribution are collectively owned by the society, as opposed to capitalism which advocates for private ownership of the means of production. Means of production include things such as factories, land, raw materials, machinery and so on. The collective ownership may be effected through the state or through cooperative unions. One of the most common misconceptions about socialism is that individuals are not allowed to own personal items.
These are personal items. Since the means of production under socialism are owned by society as a whole, the value derived from these means of production also belongs to the society collectively. Each person receives their share of the value created by the means of production based on their contribution. Before profits are distributed, a percentage is deducted to cater for common needs such as education, health, transportation, defense and welfare for those who cannot contribute directly to production, such as children and the elderly.
Socialism rose to prominence in the mid th century in opposition to the economic inequality brought about by early capitalism. By the turn of the 19 th century, the industrial revolution and the resulting industrial capitalism had led to very inhumane working conditions. There were no rights for workers, extremely low wages, extremely long working hours, and zero safety provisions. As the elite class of capitalists grew richer and richer, the working class were wallowing in extreme poverty. Socialism rose as a reaction to the injustices of early capitalism. One of the first people to advocate for socialism was a Welsh mill owner and idealist known as Robert Owen, who used is wealth to create utopian communities based on socialist ideals.
Unfortunately, his socialist experiments ended up in failure and cost him a huge chunk on his wealth. Still, the idea of socialism did not die. Instead, it took root by the mid th century, thanks to the rise of trade unions and the writings of a German philosopher named Karl Marx. Karl Marx used systematic analysis to show the shortcomings of capitalism and the exploitation and alienation that resulted from it. According to Marx, workers were the source of wealth, yet, through capitalism, this wealth went to the hands of a few instead of trickling back to the workers.
Through his writings, he advocated for a revolution which would see the working class collectively own the means of production. This is the core tenet of socialism. In a socialist economy, the means of production and distribution are owned, controlled and regulated by the public, either through the state or through cooperatives. The basic motive is not to use the means of production for profit, but rather for the interest of social welfare.
Unlike in a capitalist economy, a socialist economy is not driven by the laws of supply and demand. Instead, all economic activities — production, distribution, exchange and consumption — are planned and coordinated by a central planning authority, which is usually the government. A socialist economy relies on the central planning authority for distribution of wealth, instead of relying on market forces. Socialism rose as an opposition to the economic inequality brought about by early capitalism. As such, it aims for an egalitarian society where there are no classes. Ideally, all the people within a socialist economy should have economic equality. In a socialist economy, the basic needs — food, shelter, clothing, education, health and employment — are provided by the government without any discrimination.
This is one of the greatest advantages of socialism. Provision of basic needs by the government can, however, result in the masses thinking that they cannot survive without the government, creating a perfect environment for the rise of authoritarian governments. Typically, when you want to buy a car, you are spoilt for choice. There are different brands and different models with varying features and prices.
The same applies for many other products. In a socialist economy, there is no competition in the market since the state is the sole entrepreneur. The state only focuses on provision of necessities, which results in limited consumer choice. You might be wondering how prices are regulated in an economy without any market competition. In socialist economies, the prices of products are controlled and regulated by the state. The states sets both the market price for consumer goods and the accounting price which helps managers make decisions about productions of goods.
Another major reason behind the rise of socialism was to protect the working class from exploitation. Under socialist systems, there is no exploitation. The state takes care of the working class through employment protection, minimum wages and trade union recognition rights. If you listen to conversations around the topic, you will notice that many people use the terms socialism and communism interchangeably. But do these terms mean the same thing? Though often confused, socialism and communism are two distinct philosophies with distinct differences. First, socialism is a liberal system. The central authority in charge of the economy whether this is the government or a cooperative is popularly elected, giving the people a say on the running of the economy.
Communism, on the other hand, is more authoritarian. The people do not have any say over the running of the economy. Workers earn wages that they can spend on whatever they want. This gives people an incentive to work harder. There is little incentive to achieve more or innovate. As a result, communism is often characterized by low production, limited advancement and mass poverty. Finally, socialism and communism differ based on their approach to ownership of property.
Under socialism, the means of production are publicly owned, while individuals retain the right to own and enjoy personal property. For instance, an individual can own a television but cannot own a factory that produces televisions. Under communism, everything is publicly owned. Individuals are only given the right of usage, while ownership is ultimately retained by the state. You can think of it as living within a military barracks.
You might be assigned a house to live in and a vehicle to commute with. While you have the right to use and take care of both items, they do not belong to you. If you leave the military, the military will take control of the house and car and assign them to another soldier. There are various types of socialism, each emphasizing different aspects of socialist ideology and each advocating for different methods of turning capitalism to socialism. However, all forms of socialism share social ownership as a common element. The major types of socialism include:. This is a type of socialism where the means of production is owned by workers.
Goods produced are distributed among the workers, while any excess production is sold on the free market. In this kind of socialism, production and consumption are controlled and regulated by market forces instead of the state. This type of socialism results from the merging of the democratic system with socialist goals. A government that is chosen through popular election manages the means of production. This is an extreme type of socialism where all means of production are owned and controlled by the state.
Authoritarian state socialism advocates for strict obedience to state by the people, even if that means they should forego their rights. Marxism-Leninism is an example of authoritarian state socialism. This is a socialist doctrine that believes that it is impossible to instill social change peacefully. Revolutionary socialism believes that the transition from capitalism to socialism can only be effected through a revolution. This term is used to refer to the first wave of modern socialist thought as pushed by the works of people such as Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, Henri de Saint-Simon and Etienne Cabet.
Their ideology is referred to as utopian because it is more of a vision than a concrete plan. Utopian socialism cannot be achieved in reality. This term refers to anti-authoritarian socialist philosophies that believe centralized state ownership and control of the economy is not necessary for socialism to be achieved. This refers to forms of socialist ideology that are based on religious values. Many religious values about human society are aligned with socialist ideas and have been used to advocate for socialism. Any form of socialism that developed within a religion can be termed as religious socialism.
This is a type of socialism that merges socialist thought with green politics. Green socialism advocates for preservation of natural resources. This type of socialism advocates for achievement of democratic socialism through gradual reforms and other peaceful means, rather than through revolution. Socialism has a number of benefits which made it an appealing economic system at a time when capitalism was rife with injustices and exploitation. Some of the benefits of socialism include:. This is perhaps the greatest advantage of socialism. Socialism advocates for elimination of economic inequalities and the even and equitable distribution of the national income.
Under socialism, everyone gets their fair share of the national wealth. All the people are given equal opportunities and exploitation is eliminated. One of the major downsides of capitalism is that production depends on the purchasing power of the tiny elite. The super-rich ride in Lamborghinis and travel in private jets while the poor cannot afford a meal. Socialism prevents such scenarios. Under socialist economies, production is directed to ensure that the basic needs of the masses are met first. With weight control, more people would enjoy their longevity with lower demands for medical care. Why would we have to be pushed to eat healthier when the healthy food they want us to eat is far more exspensive then the regular, fatty, junk food that every average person can afford.
HOW how can they do that when jobs dont pay enough, food is more exspensive then ever, and the government doesnt seem to notice or if they do they dont care. People will definitely come up with more healthy food business and due to the increased quantity of healthy foods business the price will usually be reduced. Some people may even start planting their own crops and increase the green rate of their country, later on, Earth; slowing down the rate of global warming and providing fresher air and environment. Most poors only eat unhealthy foods because they are cheap. What happens if government tax them?
If you tax unhealthy food, people would not want to buy it near as much making the company lose money. However, if they either keep it the same or lower the price. Taxing unhealthy food will lead to lower demand, which will make the company lose money. But it will create incentives for the company to create healthier alternative food which will be more likely to be affordable to most people, encouraging people to adapt a healthier diet, therefore it will result the business in making more money and contribute to decreasing the cost of medical care; obesity leads to a higher risk of death and lifts the burden of the healthcare.
These companies selling chocolates, chips, sodas, etc. By this logic, all foods will cost a lot more making foods less accessible to low income families. It would be similar in principle to a cigarette or alcohol tax. Pros of a Fat Tax Social cost. A fat tax would make people pay the social cost of unhealthy food. Consumption of fatty foods have external costs on society. For example, eating unhealthy foods contributes to the problem of obesity. Blackwell-Synerg y. These costs are due to NHS costs of treating disease related to obesity, such as heart disease, angina, diabetes, strokes.
Time lost at work due to obesity issues. Lost earnings from obesity-related disease and premature death. A tax on fatty foods would make people pay the social cost of these foods. Increasing the cost of unhealthy foods, would reduce demand and play a role in reducing obesity levels. Making people pay social cost would achieve a more efficient allocation of resources. A tax on unhealthy foods would encourage people to choose healthier foods which lead to improved health and would help reduce related disease. A fat tax would also encourage producers to supply foods lower in fat and sugar. Fast food outlets would have an incentive to provide a wider range of foods. Raise revenue. Through increasing tax on fatty foods, the government could raise substantial sums of money.
They could use this revenue to offset other taxes — such as decrease the basic rate of VAT. Therefore, a fat tax could be revenue-neutral no overall increase in tax revenue. Equity neutral. Also, a fat tax could be equity neutral. Similar taxes such as cigarette taxes have been widely accepted and contributed to long-term fall in cigarette smoking rates. Cons of Fat Tax Which foods? Difficult to know which foods deserve a fat tax.
Many foods could contribute to obesity if consumed in sufficient quantities. Many factors behind obesity. It includes issues such as the size of portions, levels of exercise and genetic factors. Administration costs in collecting tax from unhealthy foods. Likely to be regressiv e. Costs of obesity may be over-estimated. Obese people have lower life expectancy and so save government pension costs and health care costs in old age. Related Sugar Tax — arguments for and against. I think you are totally correct. Quit complaining Reply. Because the healthy food is better for you. Yes I am serious lol Reply. I think that these major fat taxes are trying to get us broked Reply. In my opinon, they might help a bit but kids may not like it so they would bring home lunches Reply.
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