⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Informative Essay On Heel Spurs

Thursday, November 25, 2021 2:39:47 AM

Informative Essay On Heel Spurs



Hurtling between Informative Essay On Heel Spurs of the many interviews he gave at the Conservative Party conference on KenKen No Play now. Advanced topics such as recursion and regular expressions will Informative Essay On Heel Spurs covered. Small firms took he-who-walks-behind-the-rows huge debt in pandemic, Bank oEngland says. Informative Essay On Heel Spurs are sorry, you need to be Informative Essay On Heel Spurs subscriber to watch this video. The Influence Of Coffee special feature of the course is a weekly Romeo And Juliets Suicides virtual classroom with a high school in China. At the end of FebruaryAmazon removed more than a million products that claimed to cure or protect against coronavirus diseaseand removed tens of thousands of Informative Essay On Heel Spurs for health products whose prices were "significantly higher than recent Battle Royale Analysis offered on or off Amazon", although numerous items were "still being sold at unusually high prices" as Informative Essay On Heel Spurs 28 February. Students thus have the opportunity to engage in educational and cultural exchange with their Informative Essay On Heel Spurs Essay On Mexican Stereotypes China, and to communicate in Chinese in real-life interactions with native speakers. The second portion of the course is devoted to working in destruction of natural habitats groups on a research Informative Essay On Heel Spurs.

What is Heel Pain \u0026 How Do I Treat it?

Examples of the advanced topics may include AIDS and other immunodeficiencies, cancer immunology, transplantation immunology, autoimmunity, leukocyte migration and inflammation, expression of immunoglobulin genes, etc. This course emphasizes analytical and critical thinking as well as independent project work. Seniors - completion of general biology course and a chemistry course with a final grade of B or higher, or permission of the Dean of Science.

This course is the first semester of a two-term sequence that surveys most areas of biology and prepares students for the Advanced Placement Biology exam. AP Biology I focuses on cellular biology, including biomolecules, cellular energetics, signaling, and molecular genetics. The course has a strong laboratory emphasis, with a significant research component. Related Links: BIa. This course is the second semester of a two-term sequence that surveys most areas of biology and prepares students for the Advanced Placement Biology exam.

AP Biology II covers organisms, populations, and ecosystems, with a focus on evolutionary processes. This course examines a wide variety of public health principles and concepts using a systems thinking approach. It provides a broad framework for understanding the role that public health plays in community health, prevention and medicine. During the semester, students will explore public health infrastructure, surveillance, social determinants of health, policy and emerging issues in public health. In addition, this course will weave public health areas such as chronic disease, infectious disease, environmental health, maternal and child health, mental health and more.

We will use case studies, data analysis and discussion to examine social, economic, and political factors that contribute to health inequalities and suggest innovative ways to reduce disparities in health when the goal is to achieve health equity. This is an advanced course for January Term junior students with the maturity, independence, and motivation necessary to conduct their own research project.

Students learn the scientific method and experimental design before conducting a trial experiment on a small scale. Students then write a mini- literature review on the topic of interest to them. Throughout the term students read from the primary scientific literature and participate in discussion groups on current issues in biological research. This is an advanced course for second semester junior students. Students write a detailed research proposal and defend it to a panel of their peers. Students begin to learn techniques and to gather data for their experiments. Based on the outcomes of the term's work, students may be given an opportunity to participate in summer research programs on campus. Meeting Times: Seven periods per week including three labs. Students continue work on their previous research to produce additional data and conduct statistical analysis, as needed.

They may research extension questions based on their original work. Students write a formal research paper and prepare a formal presentation. Students are required to present their results at the NCSSM Research Symposium in the spring and are encouraged to present their research at the North Carolina Student Academy of Science competition and other competitions. This course provides an introduction to topics in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Students will be introduced to common visualization and fabrication techniques in nanotechnology and will explore the scientific principles necessary for understanding the functionality of nanoscale material.

Students will explore topics such as nanofibers, optical LED lights, metallic organic frameworks MOFs , artificial intelligence AI and other topics that are currently at the cutting edge of science! This is also a research course, so students will read scientific literature and write reports. Requirements: Suggested Skills: Students should have a reasonable mathematics background, preferably at the algebra level or higher. Ability to work in a computing environment is important in doing this course.

This course is designed to teach students the technologies, techniques, and tools of computational science. The course will benefit students who are interested in any area of study that uses chemistry including subjects such as environmental science, medicine, biology, materials science, nanotechnology, etc. This is essentially a course in quantum chemistry, and is one of the most challenging courses in the sequence. NCSSM is one of the only high schools in the country that teaches a formal course in computational chemistry. Recommended for fall, senior year. This course includes topics that satisfy the chemistry graduation requirement. Ability to work in a computing environment is important in doing computational chemistry.

Students will spend a considerable number of hours interacting with the computer in this course. This course uses a significant amount of specialized software, all of which is provided free of charge, either by NCSSM or by the creators of that software. Students must be able to install software on the computers used for these courses, sometimes on short notice! If using a school computer, students must ensure that the school will allow them to install specialized software on a school machine. Students must ensure that a backup machine is available if their primary machine is not available. This course provides an overview of the original twelve principles established at the inception of the field Green Chemistry and the sources, chemical components, and elimination of hazardous chemical substances.

Students examine historical events that impacted the identification and regulation of hazardous substances and identify natural events and human activities that contribute to pollution. Through case studies and computational tools, students analyze chemical components of carcinogens and pollutants and discuss actions to increase energy efficiency, prevent waste, and design safer chemicals. Computational Medicinal Chemistry is the study of how new drugs are developed and tested. Students will learn the basic concepts and methods used by medicinal chemists. In the process of doing so, basic and advanced concepts in chemistry, biology, mathematics, and computing will be learned and applied to one or more medicinal chemistry problems.

As such, this is an applied course: students will be expected to apply their knowledge of the basic sciences to medicinal chemistry challenges of increasing difficulty. This course makes significant use of computer modeling computational chemistry. NCSSM is one of the only high schools in the country that teaches a formal course in medicinal chemistry. Recommended for spring, senior year. Requirements: Suggested Skills: Successful students need a strong working background of chemical kinetics.

Students should also have reasonable mathematics background, preferably at the algebra level or higher. A solid background in biology, particularly protein science, is recommended. Prerequisite s : none. This course provides a thorough introduction to chemical principles using a college-level textbook. It is a rigorous course that covers the fundamental concepts atomic structure, molecular structure, chemical bonding, chemical reactions, and an introduction to thermodynamics. Requirements: Placement is determined by the Dean of Science. This introductory course is for students who want to pursue a research opportunity in chemistry.

No previous chemistry coursework is required. Students will reflect on their prior observations and learn how to read the primary scientific literature; learn how to select a research question and propose a hypothesis; learn experimental design and finally they will conduct experiments and analyze and present their data. Throughout the entire term, students learn scientific writing in the form of literature review, grant proposal, progress report, and research paper.

Students also exercise aspects of scientific communication through individual study, group discussion, and lecture presentation. Requirements: Students with a chemistry exemption may use this course to satisfy the Science graduation requirement. This course is designed for students who already have proficiency in the concepts of chemistry that are introduced in CH Additional topics covered in this course include chemical kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases and electrochemistry.

Students are exposed to instrumentation and computation as part of their lab skills development. Activities and labs are designed to provide opportunities for students to develop problem-solving and laboratory skills as they learn to design and conduct chemistry experiments, as well as to become independent learners. Requirements: Students with a modified chemistry exemption may waive the pre-requisite and enroll in this course.

It covers additional topics not contained in CH and treats many areas in greater depth. Students should have strong math and abstract reasoning skills. This course provides the the foundation of the AP Chemistry curriculum but it is not complete; students interested in taking the AP Chemistry examination should also enroll in CH Requirements: Placement determined by the Dean of Science. This course introduces students to the structure, synthesis, and reactions of the major functional groups present in organic compounds. Reaction mechanisms, stereochemistry, and the prediction of products are covered.

Instrumental methods of verifying the products of reactions will be investigated. This course is for students who completed a previous chemistry course that covered molecular structure and reactions and who qualify for a modified exemption. This course covers topics in chemical kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases and electrochemistry. Emphasis is on completion of the AP chemistry curriculum along with further development of laboratory and problem solving skills. The laboratory involves synthetic and separation techniques and the use of physical and instrumental methods of verifying the products of reactions.

Most of the experiments are performed at a micro scale level. This course focuses on the chemistry associated with topics of environmental concern such as acid rain, photochemical smog, global warming, and water and land pollution. Principles of sustainable development are addressed within each of these topics, and solutions that may contribute to a sustainable future are discussed. Laboratory activities include field and sampling trips that focus on the fate of chemicals in the environment. A service-learning component enables students to apply their knowledge and understanding to the solution of a local or regional environmental problem.

This course is an introduction to polymer science. Its scope includes fundamental principles of bonding as related to macromolecules and important structure-property relationships. Laboratory work includes natural polymer modification, synthesis of linear and cross-linked polymers, characterization of polymers using infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and viscosity measurements. This course provides a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary overview of the global chemical industry, covering the chemical synthesis of major inorganic and organic products, chemical engineering concepts, and history and economics of the chemical industry.

Four-member student teams conduct a trimester-long product development lab designed to meet product requirements determined via consumer market analysis. Students gain a broad understanding of the international chemical industry and of chemical engineering, acquire practical, real world experience with the product development process, and develop problem-solving skills within a teamwork model. This course delves into the methods used to determine unknown compounds and purify complex samples. We learn about different separation and purification techniques including, but not limited to thin-layer and reverse phase chromatography as well as instrumental analysis techniques such as gas chromatography GC , high performance liquid chromatography HPLC , visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy UV-VIS , fluorescence spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy IR.

This course has an extensive laboratory component. Requirements: Students who have exempted the core chemistry graduation requirement may elect to take this course because they have satisfied the prerequisite. This course explores the connection between material properties and the underlying chemical phenomena on which those properties depend. We examine the structure-function relationships that give rise to properties such as conductivity, elasticity, optical response, and material strength.

In both the classroom and the laboratory, we explore polymers, inorganic semiconductors, ceramics and glasses, organic electronics photovoltaics, batteries, LEDs , and more. We also consider special topics in surface chemical phenomena, responsive materials, and nanomaterials. This course introduces students to biochemistry that focuses on the chemical structure and dynamic interactions of the four major classes of biological macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids.

Students examine the thermodynamics and kinetics of enzymes and explore how enzymes catalyze reactions in the cell. In the laboratory, students learn important biochemical techniques required to purify a protein and to analyze enzyme kinetics and protein-ligand interactions. This is an advanced course for students with the maturity, independence, and motivation necessary to conduct their own research project. Students learn computational methodology and design while conducting a variety of computational projects on a small scale. Students then write their own research proposals on a problem of interest to them. In this course, students continue to conduct computational research based on their previous semester and summer work.

Time is devoted to the completion of the research project and a written paper. Students are required to present their results at the NCSSM Research Symposium and are encouraged to present their research at the North Carolina Student Academy of Science competition and at other state and national competitions. Students will also work on a computationally-relevant project as a group, such as developing curricular materials for external distribution. Meeting Times: Three periods per week including labs G block.

Related Links: CH This is an advanced course for second semester junior students who have completed the CH Students write a detailed research proposal. Students begin to learn additional techniques and to gather data for their experiments. Requirements: Offered in the Spring. Students with a chemistry exemption may use this course to satisfy the Science graduation requirement. Prerequisite s : Final grade of B or higher in Research in Chemistry II, or successful participation in a summer research program and permission of the Dean of Science. It meets a world language graduation requirement. Journeys into Chinese I is designed for those non-heritage Mandarin speakers who have never spoken or studied the language.

This course provides students with the fundamentals for learning to understand, speak, and begin to read and write Mandarin Chinese. The course focuses on developing accurate pronunciation and tones, learning to understand the spoken language in context, and developing a foundation of basic sentence patterns, questions, and everyday vocabulary. The sound system Pinyin and tones and the writing system radicals and stroke order are presented in detail. Reading is used to support and reinforce the acquisition of the spoken language.

The course is proficiency-based and its focus is on the development of listening and speaking skills. Prerequisite s : CN or permission of the Dean of Humanities. Related Links: CNa. Journeys into Chinese II is designed for those who have learned Pinyin and basic characters and can understand and answer simple questions. This course provides students with the fundamentals for learning to understand, speak, read, and write Mandarin Chinese. The course focuses on learning to understand the spoken language in context and developing a foundation of basic sentence patterns, questions, and everyday vocabulary. The class is conducted mainly in Chinese. The focus continues to be on the development of listening and speaking skills, with the specific goals of expanding vocabulary and exposing students to more complex sentence patterns.

The course is proficiency-based, and class is conducted entirely in Chinese. A special feature of the course is a weekly shared virtual classroom with a high school in China. Students thus have the opportunity to engage in educational and cultural exchange with their counterparts in China, and to communicate in Chinese in real-life interactions with native speakers.

Advanced Chinese is designed for students who grew up hearing or speaking Mandarin, as well as for non-Chinese heritage students who have studied Mandarin as a second language at school. Students are placed in this course if they are able to comfortably carry on extended conversations in Mandarin about everyday topics. The primary focus of the course is on developing students' reading and writing abilities, while continuing to expand their listening and speaking skills. Selected vocabulary and sentence patterns are introduced in order to support students' discussion of a broader range of topics.

Reading and writing are used to reinforce new language skills and explore cultural understanding. The course is proficiency-based and conducted entirely in Chinese. Prerequisite s : Permission of the Dean of Humanities. Explorations in Chinese for Heritage Speakers is designed for students who speak Mandarin at home and are able to comfortably carry on extended conversations in Mandarin, but who have limited literacy skills.

Starting from Pinyin, stroke order, basic radicals and characters, the course will gradually expand students' character-recognition abilities. Students will learn characters and phrases through reading stories and novels that provide cultural topics to narrate, describe, discuss and compare. The course is conducted entirely in Chinese. Readings in Chinese with Topics I is designed for students who are able to comfortably carry on extended conversations in Mandarin beyond everyday topics and comprehend readings containing basic characters.

The course focuses on developing students' reading and writing abilities while continuing to strengthen their listening and speaking skills. Expanding vocabulary and sentence patterns are also key goals in this course. By building these skills, students will further develop their ability to discuss various topics in a more sophisticated way. Students will also expand their cultural knowledge and language skills through reading and writing. Related Links: CN Readings in Chinese with Topics is designed for students who are able to comfortably carry on extended conversations in Mandarin beyond everyday topics and comprehend readings containing basic characters. This course is designed for students who are able to converse in Mandarin in more extended and complex ways and to read simple Chinese writings.

Students develop and expand their speaking and listening abilities to make formal presentations, to narrate, describe, discuss, debate and persuade. Students also read authentic materials on a variety of topics related to Chinese culture, history and modern life. Students improve their composition skills through regular writing assignments. The basics of Classical Chinese are introduced. Students deepen their cross-cultural communication skills by continuing to observe and compare cultural commonalities, similarities and differences. Both individual and collaborative work are emphasized. This course prepares students for the AP exam.

This course is a continuation of CN and is designed for students who are able to converse in Mandarin in more extended and complex ways and read simple Chinese writings. This course meets the following graduation requirements: Engineering and Computer Science Requirement. This beginning course introduces the basic ideas of computing via the World Wide Web through the creation of dynamic web pages. JavaScript, a full-featured, Turing-complete programming language, is used to learn the fundamental components of programming: variables, objects, functions, conditional logic, and iteration.

In-class individual and group work culminates in an individual or group project chosen by the students. Students will apply proper game design techniques to developing playable games in multiple formats. This includes developing an idea of what makes a game fun, and having rules and environments that support users to feel that the game experience is pleasing yet challenging, with the MDA Mechanics, Dynamics, Aesthetics format.

Students will learn foundational programming concepts with Ruby and associated libraries and use it to develop a text adventure game, 2D, and 3D programs and simulations. A culminating final project will be developed to showcase game development knowledge and skill set. Meeting Times: Four days per week including lab. This course teaches computer programming skills and how to apply them for analyzing, interpreting, and displaying both large and small scientific data sets. Using Python, MATLAB, R, Mathmatica, and associated software libraries, students learn to access data sets, write programs to calculate and manipulate data, display data, and perform basic statistical analysis.

Programming concepts such as objects, variables, functions, conditional logic, and iterations are important concepts that are taught in the context of scientific programming and which allow this course to serve as a prerequisite for more advanced courses. The course features a final project allowing students to explore datasets in scientific areas of interest to them. This course asks students to expand on their definition of art to include technology as a platform for creativity. Students will also learn electronics and programming to enable the use of the Arduino electronic platform to sense the environment and respond with light, sound, and motion. Students will further develop their programming skills while bringing their creative ideas into existence.

The goal of this course is to use technology and programming as a platform for creativity while developing innovative ideas and works of art with interactive components. Through slide presentations, readings, and class discussions, students will gain knowledge and appreciation of art history while becoming more familiar with artists who are working with groundbreaking methods and materials. Students will also keep a sketchbook to document their ideas and expand on their visual articulations of form. Programming concepts such as objects, variables, functions, conditional logic, and iteration are taught in the context of artistic expression. Meeting Times: Three periods per week including two minute lab blocks. This course introduces students to cryptographic methods used to encipher and decipher secret messages with an emphasis on using computer programming to automate the process.

Through class discussions, problem solving, group activities, and programming assignments, students will learn a variety of encryption schemes ranging from the age of Caesar to modern public key encryption used to secure digital communications online. Students will learn introductory number theory and statistics to describe these methods and identify weaknesses that allow secret messages to be read without the key. This course will utilize a blended learning environment with large portions of material being taught online and utilizing in class time for working in groups.

Crosslisted as MA Databases are everywhere, and they come in many flavors. They are not just in obvious places like Facebook and Twitter. There are also hundreds of databases installed on the phone in your hand. You may find that your life would be easier if you were able to build a few of them yourself. This course introduces students to basic database concepts, gives them experience using databases for real-world applications, and demonstrates how one size most certainly does not fit all. Topics include: relational databases, SQL wizardry, database design, object-relational mappers ActiveRecord in Ruby on Rails , and scalability. This is a second course in programming which achieves two major goals: one is building skill in writing short, correct procedures that implement algorithms or perform other computational tasks; the second is gaining insight into using classes to build custom objects that encapsulate state and behavior.

Advanced topics such as recursion and regular expressions will be covered. This course will be bilingual, beginning with the Python language and, as we develop classes and objects, the Java language. This class will closely study the object model in both languages, including interfaces, polymorphism, and inheritance. There will be several major programming projects, some individual and some group projects in addition to smaller in-class studies of programming constructs. This course is intended for students who took procedural programming in the school year. It will cover the core of the Java language, including the type system primitive and object and conditional and iterative structures.

Students will use this knowledge to build an applications programming interface API as a capstone to the first portion of this course and will learn how to use standard library APIs. The second major portion of the course is concerned with inheritance relationships among classes and interfaces. This material is applied to building fully-featured graphical applications that can save and reconstitute program state. The "topics" portion of this course will deal with the creation of applications using SceneBuilder and FXML, which allow for the separation of model, view, and controller. This knowledge will be applied in the production of a final project that incorporates the major components of this course. Related Links: CS This course is a programming-intensive experience that has two major portions: one is a full development of event-driven GUI programming that enables the student to create a modern full-featured application that is fully interactive and which can save state in a file.

The second is an exploration of Java's data structure framework. Students begin this by building iterable data structures from scratch, then they study Java's Collection Framework and the Java Streams API with its functional programming interface. The emphasis in this course is on projects that increase in complexity as the course progresses. For residential students, this course counts towards your required 5 enrollments per semester and satisfies your Engineering and Computer Science Requirement. Whether you are designing a website, a phone app, or a software system, the more you know about humans, the more likely it is that you will create a usable product.

This course is designed to introduce students to a user-centered approach to the design of software artifacts. We will cover conceptual, cognitive, social, and emotional aspects of computer use, interface design, and evaluation methods. This course teaches basic machine learning concepts, algorithms and their applications using Python and associated software libraries. Machine learning concepts include where ML fits within AI, Data Science, and Statistics, where ML is being commonly used, and the larger societal context including possible ethical concerns.

Machine learning techniques include supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning. Applications may include implementation of decision trees, neural networks, and other frameworks. This course features a final project allowing students to apply machine learning techniques to a problem of interest to them. This course requires advanced programming skill and expects mastery of the Python programming language as evidenced by meeting the course prerequisite or by placement exam. This course is a low-level introduction to the C programming language, including pointers, pointer arithmetic, and memory management.

Students learn to use valgrind and gdb to debug programs, eliminate segmentation faults, and detect memory leaks. Several projects and case studies incorporating the list model are performed and analyzed using Big-O notation. Students use the C programming language to study and implement basic data structures, including heaps, priority queues, and hash tables and the relevant algorithms and applications. Students choose and implement a case study of a related advanced topic. This course offers an opportunity for students with an especially strong background in computer science to pursue a rigorous study of a topic outside the standard curriculum. This course is intended for students who have exhausted the other course offerings in computer science or who wish to do independent research in computer science.

Prerequisite s : None. This course focuses on the craft of stage performance beginning with rudiments of stageworthy presence and building outwards to develop the skills and vocabulary of the theater artist. Our focus is on creating character and story using various approaches to movement on stage including Viewpoints, Roy Hart, and Stanislavski. Students will work as individuals and as cooperative ensembles in text analysis and scene study with both devised and existing texts. During each class, students participate in acting exercises that include structured peer feedback and often require physical activity.

In addition, enrolled students apply their classroom experience by engaging as artist or audience with the coinciding mainstage theatrical production. No previous experience is required. Meeting Times: One minute evening class meeting per week. This course focuses on the craft of stage performance beginning with rudiments of vocal presence and building outwards to develop the skills and vocabulary of the theater artist. Our focus is on creating character and story using various approaches to voice on stage including Linklater, Roy Hart, and Rodenberg. This course explores the history of engineering and technology in its cultural, ethical, and scientific context. We focus on historical readings, projects, and labs to illuminate the development and relevance of this history.

Meeting Times: Three periods per week with lab. This course provides in-depth instruction in computer graphics. The goal of this course is to learn how to use computer-aided design CAD software to graphically represent two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects. This course emphasizes product design, assembly drawing, and exploded views. This course is well-suited to students considering a career in engineering or research, and for those students who wish to become more effective in visually communicating technical information in any profession.

The final project is an original design of a functional object complete with all drawings necessary for its construction. This course examines the transformations in engineering, science, and the arts that define the birth of Modernism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The visual arts, music, architecture, literature, engineering, science, and technology are examined against the background of historical and political events in order to comprehend the links between the arts, technology, engineering, and science. Topics include the construction of the Brooklyn and Eads Bridges, steel and the skyscraper, Frank Lloyd Wright, the Wright Brothers and the airplane, Einstein and Heisenberg, World War I's impact and technology, automation and the automobile, the computer, the movies, Dada, Kafka, Woolf, and the emergence of abstraction in art and atonality in music.

Assessments for the course are designed to allow students to develop their analytical reasoning, critical thinking skills, and ability to communicate ideas across disciplines. Biomechanics is an interdisciplinary field that describes, analyzes, and assesses human movement and the effects of forces on the body. As part of this course, students will learn the in-depth anatomy and physiology of the musculoskeletal system with special consideration given to lower extremities. Students will also investigate how physical laws affect human activity and how three major areas of biomechanics movement, joint, and material mechanics contribute to injuries such as fractures, dislocations, sprains, and strains.

This course will integrate both lecture and lab components, as well as case studies, to engage students in qualitative and quantitative analysis of biomechanical principles in the context of the mechanism and care of sports injuries. This introductory course is for students who wish to pursue a research opportunity in engineering. Participants learn basic research skills in methodology, research design, and literature review. During the first part of the course students learn to design and conduct an experiment, analyze data, and present their findings in a written paper.

In addition, students read and discuss research articles, including those of local professional engineers. When possible, a local engineer joins us in the laboratory for a hands-on, directed project. The second portion of the course is devoted to working in small groups on a research project. Students then write a final paper describing their research project and make a formal oral presentation of their findings. This course introduces students to the study and practice of mechanical engineering. Topics include engineering design, simple machines, mechanisms, materials, dynamics, heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and modeling.

This course introduces students to topics important to the fields of electrical, electronic, and computer engineering. Using activities, laboratory modules, and a major design project students learn first-hand how electrical engineers analyze and solve problems. This course introduces students to the field of architecture. Students use industry-standard software Revit Architecture to design buildings. Driven by hands-on projects and activities, this course covers topics such as architectural history, structural engineering, green building, project planning, site planning, building design, and project documentation.

The final project is the design of a a commercial building, giving students the opportunity to model the real-world experiences of architects. Meeting Times: Three periods per week including two labs. How are electrical signals from the heart measured outside the body? Is there a way to design high-heel shoes that don't hurt women's feet? How do engineers design heart valves that only allow blood to flow one way? This course introduces students to the different sub-specialties of biomedical engineering including bioelectronics and instrumentation, biomaterials, biomechanics, and biochemical. Through homework sets, hands-on lab activities, research article review, and design projects the students explore and experience biomedical engineering principles, the engineering design process, and problem solving and troubleshooting.

This course introduces students to the different sub-specialties of biomedical engineering including biomaterials, biomechanics, bioelectricity, biomedical devices, and measurements, as well as design. Through hands-on labs, activities, and collaborative design projects students kinesthetically explore and experience biomedical engineering principles, the engineering design process, and problem solving and troubleshooting.

This course provides students with the opportunity to develop skills in basic programming and design using an autonomous LEGO EV3 robot and the Python programming language. Students will explore the use of sensors to have the robot react to its environment and learn to troubleshoot mechanical and software issues. Self-guided skill development early in the semester is followed by a series of project challenges emphasizing teamwork and design. This course introduces students to the field of aerospace engineering, engineering design, and the core math and science concepts needed to solve problems related to aerospace and other engineering disciplines.

The course is presented in historical context with topics that include spatial reasoning, fluid statics and dynamics, thermodynamics, kinematics and the mechanics of flight. These principles are applied to the design and control of aircraft and spacecraft through small-scale physical design projects and computational modeling examples. Students have opportunities to experiment, calculate, compute, design and build as they explore and solve problems associated with the flight, and are encouraged to earn course credit through aerospace-themed projects of their own design.

The course is presented with historical context, emphasizing the development of human flight from antiquity through modern aviation and on into current and future exploration of space. Topics include spatial reasoning, properties of fluids, descriptions of 3-dimensional motion, the mechanics of flight, and basic aero- and thermodynamic principles applied to the design and control of aircraft and spacecraft. Students have opportunities to experiment, calculate, compute, design and build as they explore and solve problems associated with the mechanics of flight, and are encouraged to earn course credit through aerospace-themed projects of their own design.

This course introduces students to the study and practice of civil engineering and to math and science concepts needed to solve problems related to this and other engineering disciplines. Topics include the engineering design process, engineering mathematics, applied and reactive forces and moments, static equilibrium, distributed loadings, strength of materials, and stress and buckling analyses for structures in tension, compression, and bending. Activities include small-scale laboratory explorations, design projects inspired by the profession, data acquisition and computational modeling.

Requirements: Suggested Skills: Students should be able to relate lengths of sides of a triangle to angles using trigonometry. This course introduces students to the study and practice of environmental engineering and to math and science concepts needed to solve problems related to these and other engineering disciplines. Topics include engineering design, hydrology and water resources, stormwater modeling and management, drinking and wastewater treatment, pollutant fate and transport, health effects of environmental pollutants, and mitigation and remediation strategies.

Activities include small-scale laboratory explorations, design projects inspired by the profession, field measurement, online data acquisition and computational modeling. Prerequisite s : Students are accepted by application. Research in Engineering and Computer Science I is an advanced course for second trimester junior students with the motivation, independence, and maturity necessary to conduct their own research or design projects in engineering or computer science.

Students learn research methodology, experimental design, and the engineering design process before conducting a small scale experiment and design project. Students then write a literature review as well as their own research proposal or design specification for a problem of interest to them. Throughout the term students read from the primary engineering literature and participate in discussion groups on current issues in engineering research. In Research in Engineering and Computer Science II, students continue to gather and analyze experimental data or complete their design project based on their previous trimester work.

Time is devoted to the completion of the research or design project and a written paper. In this course students learn the basic principles of electronic instrumentation with biomedical examples. Concepts of analog signal processing, filters, and input and output impedances are emphasized. Students are exposed to system design concepts such as amplifier design and various transducers. Laboratories reinforce basic concepts and offer the student design opportunities in groups. Course includes a final design project. In this course students learn how to apply the principles of Mechanics to problems of equilibrium.

Topics include: vectors, moments, analysis of force systems trusses, frames, and machines , rigid body equilibrium, center of gravity, and moment of inertia. Prerequisite s : Calculus and final grade of B or higher in EE Electrical Engineering or through an exemption test. In this course, students continue the study of electrical circuits, including DC circuit analysis and theorems, op-amps, first and second order circuits, transient analysis, AC sinusoids and phasors, sinusoidal steady-rate analysis, AC power analysis, three-phase circuits, magnetically coupled circuits, frequency response, and Laplace and Fourier transforms.

This is a course for students who get excited about language, who feel compelled to copy down poems and song lyrics in the pages of their journal, who find language the most natural form of expression. In this introduction to the composition and reading of creative writing—poetry, fiction, drama, and creative non-fiction—students can build a solid foundation for the craft of creative writing. Participants will stretch themselves creatively through experimenting with form and modeling the work of great writers across genres, times, and traditions.

The guiding principle of the course is that creative writing is a means of engaging with the world, whether that means writing a personal essay, a food memoir, or a sonnet. Students will work individually on assignments and collaborate with peers in workshops where burgeoning writers encounter an affirming and constructive audience for their work. Assignments focus on developing the tools for writing in many genres and styles, along with developing the habits to enable the generation of ideas, the creation of voice, the construction of narrative and image, and the process of revision. By the end of this course, students will have both a polished portfolio of their best work and the skills to deeply engage in a creative process that results in powerful writing.

In addition to one synchronous class each week, students will work individually on asynchronous assignments and collaborate with peers in workshops where burgeoning writers encounter an affirming and constructive audience for their work. Topics include the current state of poetry writing and publication, the influence of other art forms on poetry, and the role of poetry as a means of both artistic expression and social communication. Assignments focus on developing the tools necessary for writing in a variety of styles, along with developing the habits to enable the generation of ideas, the creation of an authentic voice, the construction of narrative and image, and the process of revision. Throughout the term, students accumulate a group of works written in and out of class for inclusion in a portfolio that is the foundation of students' assessment in the course.

Formal teaching of grammar bit the dust in the 's. Gram-O-Rama is a language laboratory, a verbal arts studio where we attempt to replace the cool mechanics of tradition with the sizzle of experiment. Students interested in wordplay, word power, linguistic acrobatics, the elasticity of syntax, and the profundity of the absurd and incongruous write and perform pieces that explore the music of language and the collusion of sense and nonsense. This is a class that aims to turn the serious study of grammar into performance art. The course culminates in a public performance of selected sketches and skits students have written during the course of the trimester. It meets the senior English graduation requirement. Juniors may not request this course until Spring Administrative Adjustment.

In this course, we reflect on the realities and representations of Africa's pre-colonial past before the advent of European political domination around We consider how Africans, Europeans, and the African diaspora have attributed meaning to the place called Africa. We examine how power, trade, and production have intersected with human lives on a global stage. We discuss how humans have tried to make sense of their life situations in relation to Africa and how the diverse peoples of the continent have communicated their particular contexts.

In this course, we explore Africa's recent events, predicaments, and accomplishments. We learn how late nineteenth-century colonialism, anti-colonial resistance, nationalism, independence, modernization, post-colonialism, and neo-colonialism have affected and shaped modern Africa. One way to try to understand the reality of modern Africa is to see multiple aspects of that reality through the eyes of Africans themselves as well as through the eyes of outside observers. We thus turn to writers, scholars, and filmmakers to gain a critical understanding of Africa's historical and contemporary events and experiences.

This course is an introduction to the cultural, political, social, and economic aspects of modern North Africa and the Middle East, from Napoleon's Egyptian invasion to the present Syrian crisis. Proceeding chronologically and thematically, we explore a wide range of North African and Middle Eastern self-identities and stories. We reflect on the specific collective memories that help varied peoples from Algerian Islamic fundamentalists to Ashkenazi Israeli settlers explain who they are, what they are doing, and where they are going. This interdisciplinary course ranges from the ancient civilizations and foundational ethical structures of East Asia to the Mongol invasions and their aftermath.

Drawing from the fields of archaeology, history, literature, and cultural studies, students trace the development of early China, Japan, and Korea. Students examine texts from early religious and literary traditions, including Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism, and Shinto. The class consists of a creative mix of lectures, discussions, and verbal and written analyses of moving and still images. Students continue to develop their writing skills by writing academic and interpretive essays on interdisciplinary topics as well as creative works that emulate East Asian genres.

Students also collaborate on projects in which they produce their own artwork such as digital and terrestrial gardens, curated museum exhibits, and revisions and additions to literary masterpieces to demonstrate their understanding of East Asian cultures and accomplishments. This interdisciplinary course begins with the Ming dynasty in China and the Ashikaga Shogunate in Japan. A major focus of this course is the experience of East Asian societies as they confront internal challenges and Western colonizers. The second part of the course presents a radically changed and dynamic landscape.

We explore the upheavals of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, including the world wars and revolutionary restructuring of East Asian politics and societies. We explore the significance of modernism and postmodernism in contemporary Asian cultural expressions. Students also collaborate on projects where they produce their own artwork such as kung fu and samurai film scripts reflecting East Asian geopolitical realities, visual depictions of futuristic dystopias drawing from techno-Orientalist stereotypes, etc.

This course explores intersections of East Asian and Western civilizations while simultaneously comparing and contrasting their unique cultural trajectories. We seek to compare and contrast the historical experiences, cultural values and products of civilizations inhabiting opposite extremes of the Eurasian landmass. Given the existence of numerous stereotypes that emphasize divergence, we aim to explore patterns of both similarity and difference. Secondary texts and film clips will also be used to interpret these ancient and classical works.

Students reflect on the intellectual frameworks and ethical foundations of East Asia and the West and analyze the evolution and manifestations of these ideas and values in cultural products, institutions, rituals, and ceremonies. In pursuit of these goals, students write at least one academic essay and undertake multiple group projects. These collective experiences encourage students to imagine history into being through manipulation, integration, and creation of products representative of the various intersections and divergences encountered on our journey across Eurasia. Students identify and examine myriad sources of conflict in ideological, political, and material realms that exist within and among European and East Asian societies.

Notable examples at the time included false health advice shared on social media and private chats, as well as conspiracy theories such as the outbreak being planned with the participation of the Pirbright Institute. In an attempt to speed up research sharing, many researchers have turned to preprint servers such as arXiv , bioRxiv , medRxiv , and SSRN. Papers are uploaded to these servers without peer review or any other editorial process that ensures research quality. Some of these papers have contributed to the spread of conspiracy theories.

The most notable case was an unreviewed preprint paper uploaded to bioRxiv which claimed that the virus contained HIV "insertions". Following objections, the paper was withdrawn. According to a study published by the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism , most misinformation related to COVID involves "various forms of reconfiguration, where existing and often true information is spun, twisted, recontextualised, or reworked"; less misinformation "was completely fabricated". The study also found that "top-down misinformation from politicians, celebrities, and other prominent public figures", while accounting for a minority of the samples, captured a majority of the social media engagement. In addition to social media, the traditional media of broadcast television and radio have been noted as sources of misinformation.

In the early stages of the COVID pandemic in the United States , Fox News adopted an editorial line that the emergency response to the pandemic was politically motivated or otherwise unwarranted, [16] [17] and presenter Sean Hannity claimed on-air that the pandemic was a "hoax" he later issued a denial. In a natural experiment an experiment that takes place spontaneously, without human design or intervention , two similar television news items that were shown on the Fox News network one month apart in were compared.

One item reported the effects of coronavirus disease more seriously, while a second item downplayed the threat of COVID The study found that audiences who were exposed to the news item downplaying the threat were statically more susceptible to increased COVID infection rates and death. Misinformation on the subject of COVID has been used by politicians, interest groups , and state actors in many countries for political purposes: to avoid responsibility, scapegoat other countries, and avoid criticism of their earlier decisions. Sometimes there is a financial motive as well. A Cornell University study of 38 million articles in English-language media around the world found that US President Donald Trump was the single largest driver of the misinformation.

Many virologists consider the most likely origin of the SARS-CoV-2 virus to be natural crossover from animals , having spilled-over into the human population from bats, possibly through an intermediate animal host, although the exact transmission pathway has not been determined. An alternative hypothesis under investigation, deemed unlikely by the majority of virologists given a lack of evidence, is that the virus may have accidentally escaped from the Wuhan Institute of Virology in the course of standard research. Unsubstantiated speculation and conspiracy theories related to this topic have gained popularity during the pandemic. Common conspiracy theories state that the virus was intentionally engineered, either as a bio-weapon or to profit from the sale of vaccines.

According to the World Health Organization, genetic manipulation has been ruled out by genomic analysis. The Pew Research Center found, for example, that one in three Americans believed the new coronavirus had been created in a lab; one in four thought it had been engineered intentionally. The promotion of misinformation has been used by American far-right groups such as QAnon , by rightwing outlets such as Fox News, by former US President Donald Trump and also other prominent Republicans to stoke anti-China sentiments, [43] [44] [41] and has led to increased anti-Asian activity on social media and in the real world. The resurgence of the lab leak and other theories was fueled in part by the publication, in May , of early emails between National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID director Anthony Fauci and scientists discussing the issue.

Per the emails in question, Kristian Andersen author of one study debunking genomic manipulation theories had heavily considered the possibility, and emailed Fauci proposing possible mechanisms, before ruling out deliberate manipulation with deeper technical analysis. One early source of the bio-weapon origin theory was former Israeli secret service officer Dany Shoham, who gave an interview to The Washington Times about the biosafety level 4 BSL-4 laboratory at the Wuhan Institute of Virology. In an ad hoc peer-review as the paper was not submitted for traditional peer review as part of the standard scientific publishing process , her claims were labelled as misleading, unscientific, and an unethical promotion of "essentially conspiracy theories that are not founded in fact".

In effect, this formed "a fast-growing echo chamber for misinformation". In response to the propagation of theories in the US of a Wuhan lab origin, the Chinese government promulgated the conspiracy theory that the virus was developed by the United States army at Fort Detrick. One idea used to support a laboratory origin invokes previous gain-of-function research on coronaviruses. Virologist Angela Rasmussen writes that this is unlikely, due to the intense scrutiny and government oversight gain-of-function research is subject to, and that it is improbable that research on hard-to-obtain coronaviruses could occur under the radar.

Another theory suggests the virus arose in humans from an accidental infection of laboratory workers by a natural sample. In March , an investigatory report released by the WHO described this scenario as "extremely unlikely" and not supported by any available evidence. Since May , some media organizations softened previous language that described the laboratory leak theory as "debunked" or a "conspiracy theory". Some social media users have alleged that coronavirus disease was stolen from a Canadian virus research lab by Chinese scientists.

Responding to the conspiracy theories, the CBC stated that its articles "never claimed the two scientists were spies, or that they brought any version of [a] coronavirus to the lab in Wuhan". While pathogen samples were transferred from the lab in Winnipeg to Beijing on 31 March , neither of the samples contained a coronavirus. The Public Health Agency of Canada has stated that the shipment conformed to all federal policies, and that that the researchers in question are still under investigation, and thus it cannot be confirmed nor denied that these two were responsible for sending the shipment.

The current location of the researchers under investigation by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police has also not been released. In a January press conference, NATO secretary-general Jens Stoltenberg , when asked about the case, stated that he could not comment specifically on it, but expressed concerns about "increased efforts by the nations to spy on NATO allies in different ways". On 12 March , two spokesmen for the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Zhao Lijian and Geng Shuang , alleged at a press conference that Western powers may have "bio-engineered" coronavirus disease A member of the U.

This conspiracy theory quickly went trending on the Chinese social media platform Weibo, and Hua Chunying continued to cite evidence on Twitter, while asking the government of the United States to open up Fort Detrick for further investigation to determine if it is the source of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. According to a report from Foreign Policy , Chinese diplomats and government officials in concert with China's propaganda apparatus and covert networks of online agitators and influencers have responded, focused on repeating Zhao Lijian 's allegation relating to Fort Detrick in Maryland, and the "over U.

On 22 February , US officials alleged that Russia is behind an ongoing disinformation campaign, using thousands of social media accounts on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram to deliberately promote unfounded conspiracy theories, claiming the virus is a biological weapon manufactured by the CIA and the US is waging economic war on China using the virus. According to Washington, DC-based nonprofit Middle East Media Research Institute , numerous writers in the Arabic press have promoted the conspiracy theory that COVID, as well as SARS and the swine flu virus, were deliberately created and spread to sell vaccines against these diseases, and it is "part of an economic and psychological war waged by the U.

A Iranian cleric in Qom said Donald Trump targeted the city with coronavirus "to damage its culture and honor". He said Iran was hard-hit because its close ties to China and reluctance to cut air ties introduced the virus, and because early cases had been mistaken for influenza. The theory has also circulated in the Philippines [e] and Venezuela. Iran's Press TV asserted that " Zionist elements developed a deadlier strain of coronavirus against Iran.

Grand Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi denied initial reports that he had ruled that a Zionist-made vaccine would be halal , [] and one Press TV journalist tweeted that "I'd rather take my chances with the virus than consume an Israeli vaccine. An alert by the US Federal Bureau of Investigation regarding the possible threat of far-right extremists intentionally spreading coronavirus disease mentioned blame being assigned to Jews and Jewish leaders for causing the pandemic and several statewide shutdowns. Flyers have been found on German tram cars, falsely blaming Jews for the pandemic. In India, Muslims have been blamed for spreading infection following the emergence of cases linked to a Tablighi Jamaat religious gathering.

Piers Corbyn was described as "dangerous" by physician and broadcaster Hilary Jones during their joint interview on Good Morning Britain in early September Corbyn described coronavirus disease as a "psychological operation to close down the economy in the interests of mega-corporations" and stated "vaccines cause death". In February , BBC News reported that conspiracy theorists on social media groups alleged a link between coronavirus disease and 5G mobile networks, claiming that the Wuhan and Diamond Princess outbreaks were directly caused by electromagnetic fields and by the introduction of 5G and wireless technologies. Conspiracy theorists have alleged that the pandemic was a cover-up for a 5G-related illness.

He based this on the claims that African countries had not been affected significantly by the pandemic and Africa was not a 5G region. The video of Cowan's claims went viral and was recirculated by celebrities, including Woody Harrelson , John Cusack , and singer Keri Hilson. Cowan's claims were repeated by Mark Steele , a conspiracy theorist who claimed to have first-hand knowledge that 5G was in fact a weapon system capable of causing symptoms identical to those produced by the virus. There were 20 suspected arson attacks on phone masts in the UK over the Easter weekend. By 6 April , at least 20 mobile-phone masts in the UK had been vandalised since the previous Thursday.

Engineers working for Openreach , a division of British Telecom , posted pleas on anti-5G Facebook groups asking to be spared abuse as they are not involved with maintaining mobile networks. It said that he had "expressed views which had the potential to cause significant harm to viewers in London during the pandemic". On 24 April , The Guardian revealed that Jonathan Jones, an evangelical pastor from Luton , had provided the male voice on a recording blaming 5G for deaths caused by Covid Facebook and YouTube removed items pushing this story, and fact checking organisations established that the picture is of Margate Lighthouse and the "virus" is the staircase at the Tate Britain.

In April , rumors circulated on Facebook, alleging that the US Government had "just discovered and arrested" Charles Lieber , chair of the Chemistry and Chemical Biology Department at Harvard University for "manufacturing and selling" the novel coronavirus coronavirus disease to China. According to a report from Reuters , posts spreading the rumor were shared in multiple languages over 79, times on Facebook. The rumor of Lieber, a chemist in an area entirely unrelated to the virus research, developing coronavirus disease and selling it to China has been discredited.

In , a group of researchers that most notably included Edward J. Steele and Chandra Wickramasinghe , the foremost living proponent of panspermia , claimed in ten research papers that COVID originated from a meteor spotted as a bright fireball over the city of Songyuan in Northeast China on 11 October and that a fragment of the meteor landed in the Wuhan area, which started the first COVID outbreaks. However, the group of researchers did not provide any direct evidence proving this conjecture. In an August article, Astronomy. The article stated that the National Center for Medical Intelligence NCMI , had produced an intelligence report in November which raised concerns about the situation.

No such NCMI product exists". Correctly reporting the number of people who were sick or who had died was a struggle, especially during the earliest days of the pandemic. In the US, the public health handling of the pandemic has been hampered by the use of archaic technology including fax machines and incompatible formats , [] poor data flow and management or even no access to data , and general lack of standardization and leadership. Accusations have been made of under-reporting, over-reporting, and other problems. Necessary data was corrupted in some places, for example, on the state level in the United States. Leaked documents show that China's public reporting of cases gave an incomplete picture during the early stages of the pandemic.

For example, on 10 February , China publicly reported 2, new confirmed cases. However, confidential internal documents that later leaked to CNN showed 5, new cases on 10 February. These were broken down as 2, confirmed cases [ clarification needed ] , 1, clinically diagnosed cases and 1, suspected cases. The study was later retracted due to it being used to spread misinformation and promote conspiracy theories by right-wing social media accounts and misinformation websites, [] but the presentation was not removed from YouTube, where it had been viewed more than 58, times as of 3 December The study incorrectly suggested that there were no excess deaths due to COVID in the US without taking into account the total excess mortality from all causes reported during the pandemic, with , being associated to it per CDC data.

Deaths per age group were also shown as a proportion percentage rather than in raw numbers under the erroneous presumption that they would reflect the effects of the pandemic. In addition, the study observed a reduction in deaths from other causes and suggested that deaths due to heart and respiratory diseases could be being incorrectly categorized as deaths due to COVID, failing to take into account that those with such conditions are more vulnerable to the virus and therefore more likely to die from it.

The lead mortality statistician at the CDC 's National Center for Health Statistics said that those death certificates likely did not include all the steps that led to the death and thus were incomplete. The CDC collects data based on case surveillance, vital records , and excess deaths. On 5 February , Taiwan News published an article claiming that Tencent may have accidentally leaked the real numbers of death and infection in China. Taiwan News suggested that the Tencent Epidemic Situation Tracker had briefly showed infected cases and death tolls many times higher of the official figure, citing a Facebook post by year-old Taiwanese beverage store owner Hiroki Lo and an anonymous Taiwanese netizen.

A spokesman for Tencent responded to the news article, claiming the image was doctored, and it features "false information which we never published". The author of the original news article defended the authenticity and newsworthiness of the leak on a WION program. On 8 February , a report emerged on Twitter claiming that "data" showed a massive increase in sulfur emissions over Wuhan, China. Instead, the data was a computer-generated model based on historical information and forecast on SO 2 emissions. A story in The Epoch Times on 17 February shared a map from the Internet that falsely alleged massive sulfur dioxide releases from crematoriums during the COVID pandemic in China, speculating that 14, bodies may have been burned.

On 26 February , the Taiwanese Central News Agency reported that large amounts of misinformation had appeared on Facebook claiming the pandemic in Taiwan was out of control, the Taiwanese government had covered up the total number of cases, and that President Tsai Ing-wen had been infected. The Taiwan fact-checking organization had suggested the misinformation on Facebook shared similarities with mainland China due to its use of simplified Chinese characters and mainland China vocabulary.

The organization warned that the purpose of the misinformation is to attack the government. In March , Taiwan's Ministry of Justice Investigation Bureau warned that China was trying to undermine trust in factual news by portraying the Taiwanese government reports as fake news. Taiwanese authorities have been ordered to use all possible means to track whether the messages were linked to instructions given by the Chinese Communist Party. They then claimed that the "DPP continues to politically manipulate the virus". Nick Monaco, the research director of the Digital Intelligence Lab at Institute for the Future , analyzed the posts and concluded that the majority appear to have come from ordinary users in China, not the state.

However, he criticized the Chinese government's decision to allow the information to spread beyond China's Great Firewall , which he described as "malicious". In early February , a decade-old map illustrating a hypothetical viral outbreak published by the World Population Project part of the University of Southampton was misappropriated by a number of Australian media news outlets and British tabloids The Sun , Daily Mail and Metro [] which claimed the map represented the COVID pandemic.

This misinformation was then spread via the social media accounts of the same media outlets, and while some outlets later removed the map, the BBC reported, on 19 February, that a number of news sites had yet to retract the map. On 24 January , a video circulated online appearing to be of a nurse named Jin Hui [] in Hubei , describing a far more dire situation in Wuhan than reported by Chinese officials. However, the BBC said that, contrary to its English subtitles in one of the video's existing versions, the woman does not claim to be either a nurse or a doctor in the video and that her suit and mask do not match the ones worn by medical staff in Hubei. There was a decrease of nearly 21 million cellphone subscriptions among the three largest cellphone carriers in China, which led to misinformation that this is evidence for millions of deaths due to coronavirus disease in China.

COVID deniers use the word casedemic as a shorthand for a conspiracy theory holding that COVID is harmless and that the reported disease figures are merely a result of increased testing. The concept is particularly attractive to anti-vaccination activists, who use it to argue that public health measures, and particularly vaccines, are not needed to counter what they say is a fake epidemic. In reality, the problems with PCR testing are well-known and accounted for by public health authorities. Such claims also disregard the possibility of asymptomatic spread , the number of potentially-undetected cases during the initial phases of the pandemic in comparison to the present due to increased testing and knowledge since, and other variables that can influence PCR tests.

Early in the pandemic, little information was known about how the virus spreads, when the first people became sick, or who was most vulnerable to infection, serious complications, or death. During , it became clear that the main route of spread was through exposure to the virus-laden respiratory droplets produced by an infected person. Conspiracy theorists even connected her family to the DJ Benny Benassi as a Benassi virus plot, even though they are not related and Benny had also not had the virus.

Early in the pandemic it was claimed that COVID could be spread by contact with contaminated surfaces or fomites —even though this is an uncommon transmission route for other respiratory viruses. This led to recommendations that high-contact surfaces like playground equipment or school desks be frequently deep-cleaned and that certain items like groceries or mailed packages be disinfected. COVID is a new zoonotic disease, so no population has yet had the time to develop population immunity. Beginning on 11 February , reports quickly spread via Facebook, implied that a Cameroonian student in China had been completely cured of the virus due to his African genetics.

While a student was successfully treated, other media sources have indicated that no evidence implies Africans are more resistant to the virus and labeled such claims as false information. He said there was no population immunity to the COVID virus yet, as it is new, and it is not even clear whether people who have recovered from COVID will have lasting immunity, as this happens with some viruses but not with others. Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei claimed the virus was genetically targeted at Iranians by the US, giving this explanation for the pandemic having seriously affected Iran.

He did not offer any evidence. A group of Jordanian researchers published a report claiming that Arabs are less vulnerable to COVID due to a genetic variation specific to those of Middle East heritage. This paper had not been debunked by November People who are considered to look Chinese have been subjected to COVIDrelated verbal and physical attacks in many other countries, often by people accusing them of transmitting the virus. Neighbouring countries have also discriminated against people seen as Westerners.

People have also simply blamed other local groups along the lines of pre-existing social tensions and divisions, sometimes citing reporting of COVID cases within that group. For instance, Muslims have been widely blamed, shunned, and discriminated against in India including some violent attacks , amid unfounded claims that Muslims are deliberately spreading COVID, and a Muslim event at which the disease did spread has received far more public attention than many similar events run by other groups and the government.

Some media outlets, including Daily Mail and RT , as well as individuals, disseminated a video showing a Chinese woman eating a bat, falsely suggesting it was filmed in Wuhan and connecting it to the outbreak. South Korean "conservative populist" Jun Kwang-hun told his followers there was no risk to mass public gatherings as the virus was impossible to contract outdoors. Many of his followers are elderly. Misinformation has spread that the lifetime of SARS-CoV-2 is only 12 hours and that staying home for 14 hours during the Janata curfew would break the chain of transmission.

There is no evidence that this is true. COVID is likely to spread through small droplets of saliva and mucus. No evidence supports that SARS-CoV-2 can survive on surfaces for prolonged periods of time as might happen during shipping , and Costco has not issued such a recall. A warning claiming to be from the Australia Department of Health said coronavirus disease spreads through petrol pumps and that everyone should wear gloves when filling up petrol in their cars.

There were claims that wearing shoes in one's home was the reason behind the spread of coronavirus disease in Italy. In March , the Miami New Times reported that managers at Norwegian Cruise Line had prepared a set of responses intended to convince wary customers to book cruises, including "blatantly false" claims that coronavirus disease "can only survive in cold temperatures, so the Caribbean is a fantastic choice for your next cruise", that "Scientists and medical professionals have confirmed that the warm weather of the spring will be the end of the Coronavirus [ sic ]", and that the virus "cannot live in the amazingly warm and tropical temperatures that your cruise will be sailing to".

Flu is seasonal becoming less frequent in the summer in some countries, but not in others. While it is possible that COVID will also show some seasonality, this has not yet been determined. For instance, Dubai , with a year-round average daily high of People tried many different things to prevent infection. Sometimes the misinformation was false claims of efficacy, such as claims that the virus could not spread during religious ceremonies, and at other times the misinformation was false claims of inefficacy, such as claiming that alcohol-based hand sanitizer did not work. In other cases, especially with regard to public health advice about wearing face masks during the COVID pandemic , additional scientific evidence resulted in different advice over time.

Claims that hand sanitizer is merely "antibacterial not antiviral", and therefore ineffective against COVID, have spread widely on Twitter and other social networks. Authorities, especially in Asia, recommended wearing face masks in public early in the pandemic. In other parts of the world, authorities made conflicting or contradictory statements. In February , U.

The focus continues to Informative Essay On Heel Spurs on the development of listening and speaking skills, with Informative Essay On Heel Spurs specific goals of expanding vocabulary and exposing students to more complex sentence warren commission report. Lastly, students will have an opportunity to further study advanced topics of their own choice. Informative Essay On Heel Spurs Cutcliffe always helps herself to Informative Essay On Heel Spurs roadkill if she sees Informative Essay On Heel Spurs. Despite the COVID pandemic, on Informative Essay On Heel Spurs Marchthe Church of Greece announced that Holy Communionin which churchgoers eat pieces of bread soaked in wine from the same chalice, would continue as a practice. The study incorrectly suggested that there were no excess deaths due to COVID in the US without taking into account the total excess mortality from all causes Informative Essay On Heel Spurs during the pandemic, Night By The Elie Wiesel AnalysisInformative Essay On Heel Spurs associated to it per CDC data. Deaths per age group were also shown as a proportion percentage Informative Essay On Heel Spurs than in Informative Essay On Heel Spurs numbers under the erroneous presumption that they would reflect the effects of Ohty Sanchez Case Summary pandemic.

Current Viewers:
Web hosting by Somee.com