⌚ Similarities Between Qing Dynasty And Ming Dynasty

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Similarities Between Qing Dynasty And Ming Dynasty



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The Manchu Conquest of China/明清战争: Every Five Days

But Wang broke with orthodoxy on some fundamental issues, most notably on the role of personal experience and intuition in ethical cultivation and an alternative metaphysics that made the heartmind a constituent of the Patterns li that are the source of order and virtue. A guiding concern that ran through many of his objections had to do with the nature of moral knowledge or knowing, which he believed to be intrinsically related to the motivation to act, much as the desire to avoid a foul odor is intrinsically related to the understanding that the odor is foul. This had implications for the model of ethical cultivation which he promoted, which was to build on the immediate concerns and experiences of individuals rather than overly academic or scholastic study on topics well removed from their daily lives Ivanhoe 99— If people fail to be virtuous, he proposed, this is because they are unable to access or recognize the deliverances of good knowledge due to interference by selfish desires, which arise from self-centered attachments and ways of thinking.

This way of characterizing the two most influential poles of Neo-Confucian thought provides an historical lens through which many 20 th and 21 st century Confucian thinkers understand their own philosophical orientation and roots. Although the philosophers most often identified with this school were an eclectic bunch, pedagogical connections to Wang Gen and some similarities in ideology and scholarly temperament make it convenient to group these thinkers together.

Wang Gen and many of his disciples were distinguished by their commitment to the popularization of Confucianism. Wang Gen himself had studied with Wang Yangming and took seriously the idea that all people have innate capacities for moral knowledge and sagehood, capacities which, on his interpretation, do not depend on formal education and book learning to be accessed.

Taizhou Confucians also brooked more dramatic departures from Confucian orthodoxy and tended to see greater consonance between Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism Peterson —, —; de Bary —; MRXA In addition to Wang Gen, other notable philosophers associated with this school were Luo Rufang — and Li Zhi — Li also maintained that the expressions of the child heartmind could be idiosyncratic, so that moral expectations and the shape of moral virtues would resist generalization to a much greater extent than most Confucians usually allowed P.

Lee , 58—64; MRXA Other than the Northern Song Neo-Confucians described in section 2. That is, each has been someone who takes most of his cues from the Cheng brothers, most notably by adopting their robustly metaphysical accounts of human nature and the fundamental unity or oneness of things. But philosophers of this sort did not have a monopoly on Confucian discourse, and over the course of the roughly seven centuries of Song, Yuan, and Ming thought there were a number of talented and innovative Confucian philosophers at the borders or outside of these mainstreams. The Yongjia Confucians had roots in the teachings of the Cheng brothers and Daoxue , but with the passage of time some of the leading thinkers came to see themselves as opponents of that tradition, in part because of their impatience with speculative metaphysics and their more practical orientation toward issues of governance and administration.

Two of the most distinguished Confucians aligned with Yongjia were Chen Liang — and Ye Shi — , both contemporaries and occasional interlocutors of Zhu Xi. Chen and Ye also argued against accounts of the Way Dao that posited it as a timeless, abstract entity independent of concrete affairs and circumstances Niu ; Tillman Another maverick Confucian of this period was Wang Tingxiang — In opposition to the metaphysical dualists of his time, Wang proposed that the ordinary features and behaviors of qi vital stuff could account for everything in the cosmos, including the sources of order and creation that mainstream Neo-Confucians tended to identify with irreducible li Patterns Ong ; Y.

Liu 55— He also rejected the fundamental unity and oneness of the universe and—still more astonishingly—denied that a comprehensive unity was even desirable Kim ; Ong In taking this position he defied a centuries-old Confucian consensus about human nature that was rarely contradicted in the Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasties. Perhaps the most fertile period for those who worked at the periphery of the main lines of Neo-Confucianism was five or six decades that spanned the collapse of the Ming and the consolidation of the Qing dynasty, roughly to Although this was a time of instability in some parts of China, it nevertheless witnessed declining faith in longstanding political customs as well as budding movements in Confucian scholarship that paved the way for more dramatic departures from orthodoxy.

A leading scholar of evidential studies was Gu Yanwu — , who established a reputation not just as a precocious philologist but also as a creative political reformer Angle 89—93; Brown ; Gu Another remarkably original and prolific philosopher was Wang Fuzhi — , who reconceived all of Neo-Confucian metaphysics and moral psychology, working against the prevailing dualism of li and qi and developing an account of the virtues that made considerably more room for human desires and emotions J. Liu , —, —; Cheng A third was Huang Zongxi — , who wrote comprehensive intellectual histories of the Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasties and offered some of the most radical political reforms ever put forward by a traditional Confucian thinker, contending that scholars and ministers be permitted to criticize their ruler openly and proposing that a variety of procedural requirements be imposed on the deliberation and decision-making of the emperor SYXA; MRXA; MYDFL; de Bary All of these philosophers and especially Huang completed significant portions of their work in the early years of the Qing dynasty, but they were products of the distinctive intellectual and social circumstances witnessed at the end of the Ming, when Confucian thinkers started to consider political reforms in earnest and began to doubt a great deal of what had, for centuries, passed for obvious truths about the Confucian canon.

One of the most notable differences between classical Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism in the Song-Ming period is the prominence of metaphysical speculation in the latter. Most Confucians in the Song-Ming period believed that all phenomenal things and events are constituted of qi , a kind of vital, energetic material. But many doubted that qi alone could account for everything of significance about the phenomenal world.

The world has a certain unity and order that they saw as highly valuable, evident in things such as the natural behaviors of plants and animals, and the way that seasons work cooperatively with living things and with one another to sustain and reproduce life. And human beings have certain capacities to understand and contribute to the order and unity of things, capacities that seem to be part of our natural endowment. Many Neo-Confucians thought that some further explanatory principle or ground was needed to account for this order, unity, and the natural capacities that help us make sense of them, and for this they appealed to the notion of Pattern li. For Buddhists this helped to justify the view that phenomenal qualities or essences are illusory, merely conventional, or conferred by the larger whole.

Most Song-Ming Neo-Confucians rejected this view. They agreed that all things have an underlying Pattern, but this Pattern is what they called ceaseless life-production or ceaseless life-generativity, not emptiness. And furthermore, this is a Pattern that all things share, so that they belong to a unified system of ceaseless life-generativity. So it is in the ultimate nature of things to participate in and contribute to these systems, which are characterized by birth, growth, and reproduction. Paradigmatic models of Pattern can be found in the cycles of birth, growth, and reproduction evident in the change of seasons, or the way that birth, growth, and reproduction serve as the central aims or the organizing principles of families. Many Daoxue Confucians thought that Pattern can do certain explanatory work that qi cannot.

Pattern explains why boats can only travel by water and carts only by land. Pattern explains why children are naturally inclined to love and serve their parents, and why things made of qi alternate between yin passive and yang active phases or states. Most recognized that these sorts of facts had much to do with the constituent qi in things as well, and a minority among the Song-Ming Confucians e. But most thought that Pattern has some independent role in accounting for them, some explanatory power not strictly reducible to that of qi. He makes clear that this is not a sort of temporal priority—it is not that Pattern exists first and then qi arises subsequently—but when we try to infer back to the origin or basis of things we should treat Pattern as prior or more fundamental ZZYL For much of the history of Confucian thought before the Song there had been a wide-ranging and generally unresolved debate about the moral character of human nature in particular, with Mencius famously arguing that human nature is good, Xunzi c.

By the end of the 11 th century, however, a consensus formed around a strong interpretation of the doctrine that people are good by nature, according to which people have well-formed moral dispositions and sensitivities innately and permanently. Cheng Yi developed the most influential formulation of this view. According to Cheng, humans necessarily have a good nature because humans necessarily have Pattern li , which includes the tendencies toward life-generativity that all things share, and this Pattern is an essential and important feature of ourselves, determinative of what we are and how we ought to be.

Cheng and later Neo-Confucians took his interpretation to be implicit in the works of the authoritative classical Confucians, especially Mencius, but it is evident that their interpretation was more radical than what Mencius in fact thought. Mencius is most plausibly read as endorsing the view that we are born with strong proclivities or sprouts of goodness which, if we are provided with a healthy upbringing, will naturally develop into virtues, and his primary concern was with the nature of humans in particular, not the nature of all living things Mencius 2A6, 6A1—6, 6A8.

By locating our good nature in Pattern, however, Cheng Yi introduced new philosophical challenges. His view assumes that all human beings have Pattern at all times, and yet it is obvious that few if any human beings are good at all times, so there must be some way of explaining the pervasiveness of human moral failure. Furthermore, Pattern is shared by all beings, human or otherwise, so the nature that we identify with Pattern cannot by itself suffice to distinguish us from non-human things. If human beings sometimes fail to be good and virtuous it is because of dark or turbid qi which prevents Pattern from expressing itself or responding correctly, and dark and turbid qi is ubiquitous.

Confucians in the Song-Ming period took a great deal of philosophical interest in the nature, characteristics, and function of the heartmind, explications of which could help to identify and specify features of moral and epistemic virtues. One of the most contentious issues, however, had to do with the relation between heartmind and Pattern. In broad brushstrokes, we could say that there are two clusters of philosophical concerns at work in much Confucian discussion of the relation between heartmind and Pattern in this era.

First, many Confucians worried about developing systems of ethical norms too far removed from our actual psychological dispositions. So, for example, they criticized Mohists for their view that one should treat the welfare of all people as having an equal claim on them, no matter their relationship to oneself e. Our ethical norms, they suggested, should be ones that we have a certain natural capacity to understand and embrace. By making the possibility of wholeheartedness a condition for esteeming something as a virtue, they tied their ethics even more closely to the heartmind that we happen to have. It is difficult enough to adopt practices that go against the grain of our natural dispositions. It is even more difficult to embrace them and enact them without reservation or regret.

Given the strong emphasis on wholeheartedness and the need to fully embrace the ethical norms that many Song-Ming Confucians promoted, some saw advantages in views that closely identified heartmind with Pattern. If a particular practice or character trait e. Several Confucian philosophers made this idea explicit. Lu and Wang adopted this understanding of Pattern in part because they saw it as putting Confucian ethical norms within reach of people in their ordinary lives, and criticized more scholarly or bookish methods of grasping the Confucian Way, which they worried would never become sufficiently intuitive to embrace wholeheartedly or sincerely Ivanhoe But there was a second set of concerns that tended to push against the temptation to say that heartmind is a constituent of Pattern.

This had to do with the pernicious implications of subjectivist accounts of ethical norms. Chinese Buddhists in general took an interest in the ways that features of the seemingly objective world were actually dependent on and constituted by the minds or heartminds of subjects DSQXL cc. And some Chan Buddhists openly embraced a way of life that seemed to countenance subjective whims or inclinations Gregory This, at least, was a worry about Buddhism shared by Confucians in the Song-Ming period. For many of the Confucians who wrote in the Song-Ming period, the most important test of a philosophical system was whether it could provide or justify a good account of self-cultivation. It was widely accepted that most people were lacking in virtue. Debates about Pattern, qi , heartmind, and the foundations of ethics were often treated as being important insofar as they had implications for how we ought to improve ourselves Ivanhoe 22— Most Confucians took the Confucian canon to be authoritative and true.

Texts like the Analects , the Mencius , and the Rites were required reading for any aspiring scholar and Confucians often appealed to these texts to substantiate their claims. But modern readers are sometimes surprised to learn that there was some debate about whether and to what extent reading the Confucian classics was required for proper self-development Ivanhoe On the one hand, it seemed obvious to many Confucians that many people had the wrong views and the authoritative Confucian texts seemed the most obvious way to correct those views.

Moreover, most agreed that we have well-formed ethical capacities by nature section 3. Confucians in the Song-Ming period adopted from the Mencius a general framework for the acquisition of ethical knowledge, according to which there are certain paradigm scenarios or cases e. In the Mencius that is done in part by noticing relevant similarities between cases, as when one sees that accepting a bribe for a special favor is self-debasing and shameful in ways similar to accepting food given with contempt, or the treatment due to seniors in general is similar to the respect we already give to our own elders Mencius 1A7, 6A10; Van Norden — Zhu Xi adds that we acquire new moral knowledge in part by seeing how a rule or norm to which we should conform fits into a larger system of norms that sustain a system of mutual life-generativity a system in which life, growth, and reproduction are ongoing and reciprocal.

Song-Ming Confucians were also interested in different kinds or types of knowledge. Ordinary knowledge is often portrayed as merely a correct and reliably informed affirmation that something is true or right, while genuine knowledge often requires some personal acquaintance with the matter, and necessarily issues in or is constituted by some appropriate feeling and motivation. In one influential discussion, Cheng Yi illustrates the distinction by describing two different sorts of reactions to news that a tiger was attacking people in the vicinity. Some villagers were startled but did not have the powerful, almost involuntary fear of the one farmer who had been wounded by a tiger in the past.

These were distinguished in various ways by influential Daoxue Confucians. Zhang Zai thought that in the case of sensory knowledge, knowers always conceive the object of knowledge as external and separate from themselves, whereas in the latter sort of knowledge the knower and known are united. Zhu did, however, continue to think that the most transformative and motivational knowledge is in some sense knowledge of our own virtuous nature, whatever external means we may use to acquire it ZZYL ; Zhu Due in part to the influence of Buddhism, Confucians in the Song-Ming period were interested in the many ways in which subtle or hard-to-detect psychological dispositions and phenomena can hamper our ability to apprehend things clearly and correctly.

Confucians in this era thus developed and argued about various techniques meant to help us detect and undercut selfish inclinations and desires, and other techniques which much like Buddhist meditation help quiet the mind so that it can respond to the world with more evenhandedness and equanimity. Most Confucians in the Song-Ming period endorsed this sort of self-monitoring, although some seemed to think that it played a more important role in self-cultivation than others.

In contrast, Zhu Xi saw self-monitoring as important but as somewhat less pervasively demanding than Wang. Some Confucian debate in the Song-Ming period concerned the role of meditation in achieving mental stability and insight. Some Daoxue Confucians thought that we discover our virtuous inherent nature when the heartmind is in this state of tranquility, a view most notably held by Yang Shi — , a student of the Cheng brothers. He believed it an important complement to study and reflection and suggested that for some people with particularly unruly heartminds it could be the most productive path to self-improvement Chan — Another objection to over-reliance on meditation was that it would leave its practitioners ill-equipped to handle the demands of active life, which unlike quiet sitting regularly tests our ability to maintain control of our feelings in the face of provocations.

Feelings on the Confucian view should be both proportionate and responsive to the correct events for example, we should react with moderate anger toward the moderate mistreatment of a friend and not react with fury to a minor, personal slight. Zhu Xi described reverential attention both as a kind of concentration or focus and as an attitude showing respect and humility, and thus capable of putting private concerns in proper perspective and keeping selfish desires in check.

He also recommended using reverential attention when reading texts for ethical and philosophical insight ZZYL 12; Chu —; Zhu 28—32 and In the Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasties, Confucians were interested in the nature and psychological structure of virtues, particularly the virtues concerned with fostering and upholding good human relationships. They saw their emphasis on the virtues of human relationships as distinguishing them from Daoists and Buddhists, insofar as the latter two groups tended to promote a concern with personal salvation which struck some Confucians as slighting moral virtue and with non-attachment which many saw as incompatible with having meaningful human relationships.

But they still tended to think of four of those virtues as having certain paradigmatic domains or situations where they were most manifest. Paradigm cases of humaneness are those in which one acts out of love or care to promote the interests of others, as when one helps or looks after a family member. Paradigm cases of righteousness are those in which someone refuses to violate prohibitions that would rightly be regarded as degrading or shameful, as when refusing an otherwise tempting bribe. Sometimes righteousness just has to do with ensuring a just distribution of goods according to merit or position.

Clear cases of ritual propriety are those in which one performs a ritual with reverence. The fifth virtue, faithfulness, is best understood as the virtue of being committed to and guided by reality in a consistent and reliable way. Humaneness in this more fundamental sense does not necessarily need to be motivated by love or care—one can exhibit the virtue of harmonizing with the larger whole even while acting out of a sense of shame as righteousness requires , or reverence as ritual propriety requires. But there is a sense in which we exhibit the virtue of mutual life-generativity even when acting righteously or ritually proper.

Throughout the Song-Ming period, mastery of Confucian texts was required for the civil service exams and thus for most appointments to state office. Confucianism had also long enjoyed a special prestige among bureaucrats and state officials, being seen by many as offering the best training for the skills and ethical demands of governance. Accordingly, many of the major Confucian philosophers and their interlocutors had experience with and were keenly interested in administration and state affairs. Most Confucians conceived of their obligations to the state as pulling in two directions: they saw loyalty to the hereditary monarchy as mandatory in most major respects, but they also regarded it as their duty to share the benefit of their ethical guidance and sound judgment with the emperor and authorities at every level.

On one relatively prevalent understanding of that role, to both serve the emperor and provide him with ethical moorings was the highest form of loyalty, for it helped to sustain the rule and further consolidate its legitimacy as a successor regime to the Confucian sage-kings of old. One of the oft-revisited debates in the Song-Ming period had to do with the difficult matter of regional governance. According to the rules of this system, regional governors were to be selected from among those who had performed very well on the civil service exams, and they were appointed at the discretion of the emperor or his court. There were also restrictions that were meant to prevent governors from developing stronger loyalties to their local communities than the emperor.

For example, governors were required to switch posts on a regular basis and were not appointed to districts that included their home towns. Many Song-Ming Confucians recognized that the commandery system was too well entrenched to jettison without major conflict or upheaval. Official Confucian histories suggested that this system had been in place at the time of the sage-kings, which suggested that it had succeeded in creating the high degree of social harmony and virtue that characterized that golden age. The most notable feature of the enfeoffment system was that regional governorships were inherited titles and thus treated as the hereditary rights and responsibilities of certain families with some allowances to forcibly remove vicious or incompetent governors.

But Confucian proponents of enfeoffment such as Zhang Zai and Hu Hong — saw a great deal to recommend it. By creating regional power bases, they suggested, the Chinese state would be more resilient and better able to survive when the emperor or his court were in disarray. They also thought that by having lasting, multi-generational relationships between local governors and their subjects they would help bring about more intimate and family-like relationships between governor and subject, thereby creating circumstances more conducive to social harmony and the cultivation of virtue. Confucian political thinkers in the Song-Ming period were preoccupied with many other contentious issues in the affairs of state and often argued vehemently over the powers and responsibilities of specific offices, famine relief policies, state rituals, laws and punishments, tax and lending policies, and military and foreign affairs JSL 8—10; MYDFL ; ZZYL —14; Zhu 56— Still, sometimes their disagreements about these issues stemmed from deeper disagreements about the role of virtue, talent, and institutional rules and incentives in effecting good governance.

In a well-known essay attributed to the classical Confucian Xunzi, the author framed this question in exactly those terms, arguing that good governance depends largely and more fundamentally on getting the right people, by which he meant people of talent and virtue. Most of the explicit debate about this issue was taken up after a series of attempts at dramatic reform at the tail end of the Northern Song associated with Wang Anshi and his successors. However well-conceived those reforms may have been in their own right, they coincided with a disastrous famine resulting in widespread debt and dislocation, and the last round of major reforms took place shortly before the Northern Song fell to Jurchen invaders.

Zhu Xi articulates a version of this consensus position in some recorded remarks to his students:. This age suffers from two defects: defects in its institutional rules fa and defects in the current political situation. The defects in the rules can all be altered at once quite easily, but the defects in the current political situation all reside in people. Wood laminated bows were popular in southern China because of the humid climate. Based on excavated bows from the Spring and Autumn period through the Han dynasty BCE— CE , the typical construction of a Chinese wood laminate was a reflex bow made from multiple layers of wood such as bamboo or mulberry , wrapped in silk and lacquered.

Siyahs are the non-bending end sections of Asiatic composite bows. The design shares similarities with Hunnic horn bows. Shorter bow designs became popular during the Ming dynasty — CE. Its design is possibly related to the Korean horn bow. Wu Bei Yao Lue Chapter 4 , another classic Ming dynasty military manual, depicts a set of bows that is distinct from those discussed in Wubei Zhi. Although Ming bows have been depicted in literature and art, archaeologists have yet to recover an original Ming bow sample. In contrast to other Asiatic composite designs, Qing horn bows were large up to 1. The general principle behind this design was to trade arrow speed in favor of stability and the ability to efficiently launch long and heavy arrows, which sometimes exceeded one meter in length.

The Manchurian bow has influenced modern-day Tibetan and Mongolian bow designs, which are shorter versions of the Qing horn bow. Because Chinese archers typically used the thumb draw, they often required thumb protection in the form of a ring or leather guard. In historical times, thumb ring materials included jade, metal, ivory, horn and bone though specimens made of organic materials have been difficult to recover. Because of the importance of archery, the significance of thumb rings extended beyond the battlefield: rings were commonly worn as status symbols, and up until the end of the Han dynasty CE , they were also sacrificial burial objects.

Although the archaeological record for Chinese thumb protection is incomplete, the designs of excavated and antique rings suggest that a variety of designs became popular over time. The ring was a slanted cylinder where the front, which contained a groove for holding the bow string, was higher than the back. An excavation of the Marquis of Jin's tomb in Quwo County , Shanxi revealed a Western Zhou jade thumb ring, which had a lipped design but featured taotie decorations similar to the Shang dynasty Fu Hao ring. Apart from the above examples, describing thumb ring designs from other time periods is difficult.

For example, thumb rings are absent from the archaeological record between the Han and Ming dynasties — CE even though contemporary literature such as Wang Ju's archery manual from the Tang dynasty indicates that Chinese archers were still using the thumb draw. Li Chengfen's archery manual advocated using rings with oval openings, and Gao Ying's archery manual described the use of lipped rings and contained illustrations depicting an archer using a lipped ring. To date, however, the only recovered rings that purport to be from the Ming dynasty have cylindrical designs that are different from Qing thumb rings. To date, there are very few if any excavated examples of draw hand protection for Chinese archers using the 3-finger draw.

Legends about archery permeate Chinese culture. An early tale discusses how the Yellow Emperor , the legendary ancestor of the Chinese people, invented the bow and arrow:. ONCE upon a time, Huangdi went out hunting armed with a stone knife. Suddenly, a tiger sprang out of the undergrowth. Huangdi shinned up a mulberry tree to escape. Being a patient creature, the tiger sat down at the bottom of the tree to see what would happen next. Huangdi saw that the mulberry wood was supple, so he cut off a branch with his stone knife to make a bow. Then he saw a vine growing on the tree, and he cut a length from it to make a string. Next he saw some bamboo nearby that was straight, so he cut a piece to make an arrow. With his bow an arrow, he shot the tiger in the eye.

The tiger ran off and Huangdi made his escape. Another myth was Hou Yi shooting the sun. One day he was attacked by a rabid rabbit. To save himself he took the branch of a tree and the sinew of a nearby dead deer and he picked up a stick off the ground and using his new contraption fired the stick and killed the rabbit. When he returned he was hailed as a hero by the village and made king. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is a horn, bamboo, sinew composite. Main article: thumb ring. Archived from the original on Retrieved Chinese Archery — An Unbroken Tradition? Schaeffer 12 March The Tibetan History Reader. Columbia University Press. ISBN SUNY Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chinese Archery. Hong Kong University Press.

Farmer Community Schools and the State in Ming China. Stanford University Press. NUS Press. Harvard University Press. Perpetual happiness: the Ming emperor Yongle. University of Washington Press. Perfecting the Mind and the Body. Werner Chinese Weapons. Ohara Publications. Xin Ding San Li Tu. The Archery Tradition of China. Qi Ji-guang's Archery Method.

Perhaps the most fertile period for those who worked at the periphery of the Similarities Between Qing Dynasty And Ming Dynasty lines of Neo-Confucianism was Similarities Between Qing Dynasty And Ming Dynasty or six decades that spanned the collapse of the Ming and the consolidation of the Qing dynasty, roughly to Although of Turkic origin, major linguistic The Punishment In The Elizabethan Era have been absorbed from Chinese. William Safran ed. The KoranSimilarities Between Qing Dynasty And Ming Dynasty Examples Of Friendship In A Separate Peace brothers brought on their journey to China is to this day Similarities Between Qing Dynasty And Ming Dynasty preserved in Xunhua at Similarities Between Qing Dynasty And Ming Dynasty Mosque. The group trekked through the northern route of the Tian Shan mountain ranges into the Jiayuguan Similarities Between Qing Dynasty And Ming Dynasty and passing through the present Similarities Between Qing Dynasty And Ming Dynasty Suzhou DistrictGanzhou districtNingxiaQinzhou DistrictGangu Countyand eventually stopping at the present Xiahe County.

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