⌛ Differences Between The North And South In The 1800s
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Differences between the North and South before the Civil War
Thornton faces bankruptcy, due to market fluctuations and the strike. He learns the truth about Margaret's brother from Nicholas Higgins and comes to London to settle his business affairs with Margaret, who is his new landlord. When Margaret offers to lend Thornton some of her money, he realizes that her feelings towards him have changed, and he again proposes marriage.
Since she has learned to love him, she accepts. Matus stresses the author's growing stature in Victorian literary studies and how her innovative, versatile storytelling addressed the rapid changes during her lifetime. It was not always that way;  her reputation from her death to the s was dominated by Lord David Cecil 's assessment in Early Victorian Novelists that she was "all woman" and "makes a creditable effort to overcome her natural deficiencies but all in vain".
Contemporary reviews were critical, similar to those of Mary Barton. A scathing, unsigned critique in The Leader accused Gaskell of making errors about Lancashire which a resident of Manchester would not make and said that a woman or clergymen and women could not "understand industrial problems", would "know too little about the cotton industry" and had no "right to add to the confusion by writing about it". Gaskell's novels, with the exception of Cranford , gradually slipped into obscurity during the late 19th century; before , she was dismissed as a minor author with "good judgment and feminine sensibilities". Archie Stanton Whitfield wrote that her work was "like a nosegay of violets, honeysuckle, lavender, mignonette and sweet briar" in ,  and Cecil said that she lacked the "masculinity" necessary to properly deal with social problems.
The change in title of Gaskell's fourth novel from Margaret Hale to Dickens' suggested North and South  underscores its theme of modernity versus tradition. Until the end of the 18th century, power in England was in the hands of the aristocracy and landed gentry based in the south. The Industrial Revolution unsettled the centuries-old class structure , shifting wealth and power to manufacturers who mass-produced goods in the north. Cities such as Manchester, on which Gaskell modeled her fictional Milton, were hastily developed to house workers who moved from the semi-feudal countryside to work in the new factories. The south represents the past tradition : aristocratic landowners who inherited their property, collected rent from farmers and peasants and assumed an obligation for their tenants' welfare.
The north represents the future modernity : its leaders were self-made men like Gaskell's hero, John Thornton, who accumulated wealth as working, middle-class entrepreneurs. In their view, philanthropy or charity — giving something for nothing — was a dangerous imbalance of the relationship between employers and employees which was based on the exchange of cash for labour. Rebellion against an authority seen as unfair is woven throughout the story. Established institutions are seen as inhumane or selfish, and therefore fallible;  Mr. Hale breaks with the church on a matter of conscience, and Frederick Hale participates in a mutiny against the navy and is forced into exile because the law would hang him for what he considered a just cause.
His rebellion parallels the strike by workers who take up the cause to feed their children. Both are impotent and engaged in a struggle a war, in the eyes of the workers whose terms are dictated by those who maintain their power by force: the law and the mill masters. Even Mrs. Hale rebels in her own way; she is "prouder of Frederick standing up against injustice, than if he had been simply a good officer". The theme of power is also central. Thornton represents three aspects of power and the authority of the ruling class: a manufacturer respected by his peers economic power , a magistrate judicial power and someone who can summon the army political power to quell the strike. Margaret demonstrates power in her verbal jousting with Thornton, forcing him to reflect on the validity of his beliefs and eventually change his view of workers from mere providers of labour to individuals capable of intelligent thought.
The notion of separate spheres dominated Victorian beliefs about gender roles, assuming that the roles of men and women are clearly delineated. The expression of feelings is considered feminine, and aggression is seen as masculine. Resolving conflict with words is feminine, and men are likely to resort to physical resolution including war. The mistress of the home is the guardian of morality and religion and " The Angel in the House ". The public sphere is considered dangerously amoral and, in the work of authors such as Dickens, disasters ensue when characters do not conform to contemporary standards. This notion is questioned in North and South. In Margaret Hale, the separation is blurred and she is forced by circumstances to assume a masculine role, organizing the family's departure from Helstone and assuming much of the responsibility for the family in Milton including encouraging her father.
She carries the load alone, behaving like a " Roman girl " because Mr. Hale is weak and irresolute. When Higgins slips away and her father trembles with horror at Boucher's death, Margaret goes to Mrs. Boucher, breaks the news of her husband's death, and cares for the family with dedication and efficiency. She summons her brother Frederick, a naval officer who is crushed with grief at the death of his mother. To protect her brother, Margaret later lies about their presence at the train station on the day of his departure.
Thornton and Higgins, while not denying their masculinity, demonstrate compassion. Higgins in particular, whom Thornton considers among "mere demagogues, lovers of power, at whatever costs to others", assumes the responsibility for raising the Boucher children and embodies maternal tenderness lacking in Mrs. Thornton and strength not possessed by Mrs. Hale and dignity. Gaskell endows John Thornton with tenderness a soft spot, according to Nicholas Higgins. Although Thornton's pride hides this capacity from public view, he shows it in his affection for his mother and his quiet attention to the Hales. He expresses it more obvious when he later develops relations with his workers beyond the usual cash-for-labour, builds a canteen for the workers, and sometimes shares meals with them.
Margaret and Thornton's evolution eventually converges and, after learning humility, they are partially freed from the shackles of separate spheres; he develops friendly relations at the mill, and she asserts her independence from her cousin's life. Margaret initiates their business meeting, which he interprets as a declaration of love. They now meet as man and woman, no longer the manufacturer from the north and the lady from the south. The blurring of roles is also evident among the workers, many of whom like Bessy are women.
Certain family relationships are emphasized Margaret and her father, Higgins and Bessy, Mrs. Hale and Frederick , all interrupted by death. The tie between Thornton and his mother is particularly deep and, on Mrs. Thornton's side, exclusive and boundless: "her son, her pride, her property". It holds fast forever and ever". Parent-child relationships are often metaphors for relations between employers and workers in Victorian literature. She favors, instead, helping workers grow and become emancipated. Hale and Thornton, Margaret and Bessy, and Thornton and Higgins prefigure Gaskell's desired human relations which blur class distinctions. Margaret performs "lowly" tasks and Dixon becomes a confidante of Mrs.
Hale, who develops a relationship of respect, affection, and understanding with the maid. Gaskell, the daughter, and wife of a pastor, did not write a religious novel, although religion plays an important role in her work. Although the re-institution in by Pope Pius IX of a Roman Catholic hierarchy in England was generally strongly condemned, Gaskell has an open mind about Catholicism and Frederick Hale converts to his Spanish wife's religion.
Biblical references appear in several forms. Chapter VI cites the Book of Job , ii. However, Gaskell cautions against misuse; Bessy Higgins reads the Apocalypse to cope with her condition and interprets the parable of Dives and Lazarus so simplistically that Margaret counters vigorously: "It won't be division enough, in that awful day, that some of us have been beggars here, and some of us have been rich—we shall not be judged by that poor accident, but by our faithful following of Christ". Margaret and Thornton follow a path of conversion which leads to reconciliation, acknowledging their "unworthiness". Francis de Sales encourages her to seek "the way of humility", despite Mr. Bell's attempts to minimize and rationalize her lie as told in a panic.
Thornton, on the brink of ruin like Job, tries not to be outraged while his mother rebels against the injustice of his situation "Not for you, John! God has seen fit to be very hard on you, very" and gives fervent thanks for the "great blessing" his existence gives her. The novel has three beginnings, two of them illusory: the first is the wedding preparation in London, the second the heroine's return to Helstone and the third often considered the real start of the story narrates the departure for Milton in chapter seven.
Bodenheimer interprets the early chapters not as false starts but as demonstrating Gaskell's theme of societal and personal "permanent state s of change" and integral to the novel. The opening chapters of North and South indicate an apparent novel of manners in the style of Jane Austen,  with preparations for the marriage in London of a silly bride and a lively, intelligent heroine; in the country village of Helstone a fictional place in the English county of Hampshire , a bachelor in search of fortune Henry Lennox woos — and is rejected by — Margaret. Gaskell's novel of manners has the broader context of an industrial novel about the north-west of England, where young girls like Bessy die of "cotton consumption"; capitalists disregard legal obligations, and workers refuse prophylactic facilities, instigate strikes and foment riots.
However, North and South is not simply an industrial Pride and Prejudice Margaret acquires stature and a public role, challenging the Victorian idea of separate spheres. Although the novel ends in Harley Street where it began , Margaret's estrangement from the vain, superficial world of her cousin Edith and Henry Lennox is emphasized by her choice of Thornton and Milton. As the chapter titles "First Impressions", "Mistakes", "Mistakes Cleared Up", "Mischances" and "Atonement" indicate that North and South is peppered with Margaret's blunders and problematic situations with other characters which create misunderstandings.
Some of Margaret's blunders stem from ignoring customs, some from not understanding them and still others from rejecting Milton's social customs such as a frank, familiar handshake. Other characters fail to carry out important actions: Dixon does not tell Margaret that Thornton attended her mother's funeral, and Mr. Bell dies before he can explain to Thornton why Margaret lied. Margaret feels misunderstood, unable to take control of her life and explain a world she does not understand. Other gaffes are due to Margaret's ignorance; accustomed to London's chic salons, she is unaware that she is seen as wearing her shawl "as an empress wears her drapery" and serving tea with "the air of a proud reluctant slave".
She receives marriage proposals awkwardly: Henry Lennox's declaration of love is "unpleasant" and makes her uncomfortable, and she feels "offended" and assaulted by John Thornton's proposal. Margaret naively believes that the rioters can be negotiated with and is unaware that she and her brother, Frederick, resemble a loving couple on a train-station platform O'Farrell, , p. Bodenheimer sees this "mistakenness" as purposeful: "In its every situation, whether industrial politics or emotional life, traditional views and stances break down into confusing new ones, which are rendered in all the pain of mistakenness and conflict that real human change entails".
Thornton reconsiders, eventually offering Higgins a job. In the final chapter, she does not seem to realize that a "simple proposition" to bail out the factory a business arrangement could hurt Thornton's pride or be seen as shocking from a "lady". Bodenheimer interprets scenes like this as "deep confusion in a time of personal change and revision"  which brings the lovers together. The first description of Marlborough Mills in Chapter XV is through Margaret's eyes and thoughts, and the omniscient narrator delves into the inner thoughts of her main characters and occasionally interjects her observations.
It was a stinging pleasure to be in the room with her But he was no great analyzer of his own motives, and was mistaken as I have said". The narrative sometimes slips into free indirect discourse ; Mrs. Thornton silently calls Margaret's embroidery of a small piece of cambric "flimsy, useless work" when she visits the Hales. Bodenheimer believes that the narrator is interested in the psychology of her characters: their inner selves, how their contentious interactions with others subconsciously reveal their beliefs and how the changes they experience reflect their negotiation of the outside world. The phrase "as if" appears over times, suggesting Gaskell's reluctance to appear too definitive in her narration: "Bessy, who had sat down on the first chair, as if completely tired out with her walk" and "[Thornton] spoke as if this consequence were so entirely logical".
Thornton had shown". Gaskell uses it when exploring the unconscious process that allows Thornton, whose suffering in love disturbs his composure and control of his feelings, to communicate with Higgins: " According to Bodenheimer, North and South 's narrative may sometimes appear melodramatic and sentimental "But, for all that—for all his savage words, he could have thrown himself at her feet, and kissed the hem of her garment" in chapter 29 —particularly in the riot scene—but she sees Gaskell's best writing as "done with the unjudging openness to experience" which the author shares with D. Matus finds Gaskell's vocabulary "Gothicized" in its descriptions of the characters' agonized inner life—their responses to suffering and pain—which may appear melodramatic out of context.
However, "the language of shock and horror is absorbed into the realist texture of the novel's narration" and is consistent with the extreme conditions of the novel's external world. Margaret's adaptation to the culture is demonstrated through language. Gaskell lived during the period of upheaval which followed the Industrial Revolution, and was aware of the difficult conditions of daily life  and the health problems suffered by the workers of Manchester. Lasting nearly seven months from September to April , it was ultimately unsuccessful. The strike is described in detail, with intelligent leaders like Higgins, the desperate violence and savagery of the rioters, and the reactions of both sides.
Through the eyes of Margaret, a horrified, compassionate outsider, Gaskell illustrates the social misery of the slums  Margaret visits, misery occasionally documented in parliamentary papers blue books with suggestive illustrations which resulted in the Factory Act of Gaskell uses a cause of conflict between masters and workers the installation of ventilators in the carding rooms to illustrate the greed of one and the ignorance of the other, making social progress difficult, and calls attention to anti-Irish prejudice in a city where the Irish are a small minority.
Thornton expresses the middle-class view of the working class as "a pack of ungrateful hounds". North and South belongs to the canon of "condition of England" novels also known as social-problem, industrial or social novels which analyse Victorian social realities, offering "first-hand detailed observations of industrialism, urbanism, class, and gender conflicts". She advocates for an authority which takes into account the needs of workers, a social and economic contract as advocated by John Locke in Two Treatises of Government , where masters and workers are in solidarity.
After the strike, Thornton finally acknowledges that "new forms of negotiation between management and labor are part of modern life";  the strike, which ruined him, was "respectable" because the workers depend on him for money and he depends on them to manufacture his product. In the class struggle which victimizes some such as Boucher and Bessy , Gaskell does not offer definitive conflict resolution :  Thornton's hope for strikes, for instance, is that they no longer be "bitter and venomous".
He and Higgins reach a level of understanding beyond a "cash nexus" through Margaret's "ongoing involvement in the process of social change " by urging communication between masters and workers. According to Catherine Barnes Stevenson, Gaskell may have found women doing factory work problematic; she often referred to "masters and men" and used one dying factory worker Bessy to represent women workers, who constituted more than half the factory workers at the time.
Gaskell hints at the difficulties families such as the Hales have keeping female domestic workers like Dixon in their proper — subordinate — place and becoming like members of the family blurring class differences , a scenario facing industrial workers as well. As impoverished refugees from the potato famine of the s and s, many of these new immigrants could be hired as factory workers at low wages, thus reducing the need for enslaved people in the North. In the Southern states, longer growing seasons and fertile soils had established an economy based on agriculture fueled by sprawling plantations owned by White people that depended on enslaved people to perform a wide range of duties.
When Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in , cotton became very profitable. This machine was able to reduce the time it took to separate seeds from the cotton. At the same time, the increase in the number of plantations willing to move from other crops to cotton created an even greater need for enslaved people. The Southern economy became a one-crop economy, depending on cotton and, therefore, on enslaved people. Though it was often supported throughout the social and economic classes, not every White Southerner enslaved people. The population of the pro-slavery states was around 9. In contrast, industry ruled the economy of the North and less emphasis was on agriculture, though even that was more diverse. Many Northern industries were purchasing the South's raw cotton and turning it into finished goods.
This economic disparity also led to irreconcilable differences in societal and political views. In the North, the influx of immigrants—many from countries that had long since abolished slavery—contributed to a society in which people of different cultures and classes lived and worked together. The South, however, continued to hold onto a social order based on white supremacy in both private and political life, not unlike that under the rule of racial apartheid that persisted in South Africa for decades. In both the North and South, these differences influenced views on the powers of the federal government to control the economies and cultures of the states.
Since the time of the American Revolution , two camps emerged when it came to the role of government. Some people argued for greater rights for the states and others argued that the federal government needed to have more control. The first organized government in the U. The 13 states formed a loose Confederation with a very weak federal government. However, when problems arose, the weaknesses of the Articles caused the leaders of the time to come together at the Constitutional Convention and create, in secret, the U. Strong proponents of states rights like Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry were not present at this meeting. Many felt that the new Constitution ignored the rights of states to continue to act independently.
They felt that the states should still have the right to decide if they were willing to accept certain federal acts. This resulted in the idea of nullification , whereby the states would have the right to rule federal acts unconstitutional. The federal government denied states this right. However, proponents such as John C. Calhoun —who resigned as vice president to represent South Carolina in the Senate—fought vehemently for nullification.
When nullification would not work and many of the Southern states felt that they were no longer respected, they moved toward thoughts of secession. As America began to expand—first with the lands gained from the Louisiana Purchase and later with the Mexican War —the question arose of whether new states would be pro-slavery states or free states. An attempt was made to ensure that equal numbers of free states and pro-slavery states were admitted to the Union, but over time this proved difficult.
The Missouri Compromise passed in This established a rule that prohibited enslavement in states from the former Louisiana Purchase north of the latitude 36 degrees 30 minutes, with the exception of Missouri. During the Mexican War, the debate began about what would happen with the new territories the U. David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso in , which would ban enslavement in the new lands. This was shot down amid much debate. The Compromise of was created by Henry Clay and others to deal with the balance between pro-slavery states and free states.
It was designed to protect both Northern and Southern interests. When California was admitted as a free state, one of the provisions was the Fugitive Slave Act. This held individuals responsible for harboring freedom-seeking enslaved people, even if they were located in free states. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of was another issue that further increased tensions. It created two new territories that would allow the states to use popular sovereignty to determine whether they would be free states or pro-slavery states. The real issue occurred in Kansas where pro-slavery Missourians, called "Border Ruffians," began to pour into the state in an attempt to force it toward slavery. Problems came to a head with a violent clash at Lawrence, Kansas. This caused it to become known as " Bleeding Kansas.
Preston Brooks. Increasingly, Northerners became more polarized against enslavement. Sympathies began to grow for abolitionists and against enslavement and enslavers. Many in the North came to view enslavement as not just socially unjust, but morally wrong. The abolitionists came with a variety of viewpoints. People such as William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass wanted immediate freedom for all enslaved people. A group that included Theodore Weld and Arthur Tappan advocated for emancipating enslaved people slowly. Still others, including Abraham Lincoln, simply hoped to keep slavery from expanding.
A number of events helped fuel the cause for abolition in the s. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote " Uncle Tom's Cabin ," a popular novel that opened many eyes to the reality of enslavement. The Dred Scott Case brought the issues of enslaved peoples' rights, freedom, and citizenship to the Supreme Court. Additionally, some abolitionists took a less peaceful route to fighting against slavery. John Brown and his family fought on the anti-slavery side of "Bleeding Kansas.A Differences Between The North And South In The 1800s, unsigned critique Interpersonal Conflict In Shakespeares Romeo And Juliet The Leader accused Gaskell of making Differences Between The North And South In The 1800s about Lancashire which a resident of Manchester would not make and said that a woman or clergymen and women Differences Between The North And South In The 1800s not "understand industrial problems", would "know too little about the cotton industry" and had no "right to add to the confusion by writing about it". Part of a series on the. Lasting nearly seven months from Differences Between The North And South In The 1800s Pros And Cons Of Classical Utilitarianism Aprilit was ultimately unsuccessful. This Day In History. Suffering from chronic rheumatism, the year-old gun manufacturer died at his Fahrenheit 451 Montag Rebellion on January 10,leaving behind an estate worth millions. Persuasive Speech On Perseverance both leagues Cameron Wake is Differences Between The North And South In The 1800s as a very fast player in the position he played.