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Baumrind Configurational Model



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Lecture 2.4: Social Cognitive Models of Health Behavior

Perceptions of child rearing and self-concept development during the early adolescent years Journal of Youth and Adolescence — The development of childhood anxiety disorders: Toward an integrated model Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology — Manassis K. The development of childhood anxiety disorders: Toward an integrated model Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology — Parental factors associated with social anxiety: Methodological limitations and suggestions for integrated behavioral research Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 5: — CrossRef Masia C. Parental factors associated with social anxiety: Methodological limitations and suggestions for integrated behavioral research Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 5: — CrossRef.

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Potential role of childrearing practices in the development of anxiety and depression Clinical Psychology Review 47—67 PubMed Rapee R. Potential role of childrearing practices in the development of anxiety and depression Clinical Psychology Review 47—67 PubMed. A developmental study of learned helplessness Developmental Psychology — Rholes W. A developmental study of learned helplessness Developmental Psychology — Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites Archives of General Psychiatry PubMed. Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Development of a new measure Psychological Reports — Robinson C. Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Development of a new measure Psychological Reports — Sex-based differences in parenting styles in a sample with preschool children.

Australian Journal of Psychology 89— Russell, A. Impact of family processes on control beliefs. In Bandura, A. Eds , Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. Anxiety in children: Perceived family environments and observed family interaction Journal of Clinical Child Psychology — Siqueland L. Anxiety in children: Perceived family environments and observed family interaction Journal of Clinical Child Psychology — Age differences in the dimensions of perceived control during middle childhood: Implications for developmental conceptualizations and research Child Development — Skinner E. Age differences in the dimensions of perceived control during middle childhood: Implications for developmental conceptualizations and research Child Development — Development and perceived control: A dynamic model of action in context.

In Gunnar, M. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. Prevention Strategies. In Vasey, M. Eds , The developmental psychopathology of anxiety. New York: Oxford University Press. Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence Child Development — PubMed Smetana J. Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence Child Development — PubMed. Domain-specific antecedents of parental psychological control and monitoring: The role of parenting beliefs and practices Child Development — PubMed Smetana J.

Domain-specific antecedents of parental psychological control and monitoring: The role of parenting beliefs and practices Child Development — PubMed. Single parents, stepparents, and the susceptibility of adolescents to antisocial peer pressure Child Development — PubMed Steinberg L. Single parents, stepparents, and the susceptibility of adolescents to antisocial peer pressure Child Development — PubMed. Low genetic effect and age-specific family effect for symptoms of anxiety and depression in nuclear families, halfsibs, and twins Journal of Affective Disorders — PubMed Tambs K. Low genetic effect and age-specific family effect for symptoms of anxiety and depression in nuclear families, halfsibs, and twins Journal of Affective Disorders — PubMed. Genetic factors in anxiety disorders Archives of General Psychiatry — Developmental differences in cognitive diatheses for child depression Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 15—32 PubMed.

Psychopathology in the offspring of anxiety disorder patients Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology — PubMed. Parenting behaviors in parents with anxiety disorders Behavior Research and Therapy — Turner S. Parenting behaviors in parents with anxiety disorders Behavior Research and Therapy — Development and cognition in childhood anxiety: The example of worry. In Ollendick, T. Plenum, New York, pp. An introduction to the developmental psychopathology of anxiety.

Developmental Issues. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. Cognitive errors in youth with anxiety disorders: The linkages between negative cognitive errors and anxious symptoms Cognitive Therapy and Research — Weems C. Cognitive errors in youth with anxiety disorders: The linkages between negative cognitive errors and anxious symptoms Cognitive Therapy and Research — Testing the utility of the anxiety sensitivity construct in children and adolescents referred for anxiety disorders Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 69—77 PubMed Weems C.

Testing the utility of the anxiety sensitivity construct in children and adolescents referred for anxiety disorders Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 69—77 PubMed. Developmental variations in the prevalence and manifestation of anxiety disorders. Minor changes were made in wording. Moreover, based on an in-depth review of existing parenting literature and validated measures, we wrote additional items to provide adequate number of items to cover all sub-constructs of the five different parenting constructs. The resulting questionnaire included items that measured nurturance, structure, behavioral control, overprotection, and coercive control.

For all items the same 5-point Likert scale was used, ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree. In addition to the parenting questions, we collected parent-reported demographic information e. The criterion validity, test—retest reliability and internal consistency of this item scale have been well established in previous studies [ 67 ]. Caregivers were asked to score on a 7-point Likert scale the degree to which the personality characteristics were descriptive of themselves. The survey was administered as a web-based survey which has more advantages than disadvantages compared with traditional modes of data collection.

Advantages include lower proneness to social desirability bias, no missing data when using forced-choice formats, and more rapid return than postal questionnaires [ 69 ]. Disadvantages include selection bias for those that have access to a computer, and higher non-response rates, although subjects responding to an online survey are comparable to those responding to traditional modes of data collection in terms of demographics [ 69 ]. Data were collected using a random sample of eligible parents i. The companies performed the random selections, ensuring the sample remained representative of the countries. Participants who take part in the Flycatcher panel are financially rewarded for their contribution, e.

Only participants who had completed all parenting items were used for the current study. In total, questionnaires were completed via Flycatcher and via Thesistools. Child mean SD age was 8. Similar procedures were used to generate data from Belgian parents. A Dutch Internet panel, Thesistools, was used for distribution of our online survey to eligible Dutch speaking parents in Belgium. In total, questionnaires were used for analysis. Child mean SD age was 9. Only participants who agreed to take part in the raffles had a chance to win one of the gift cards.

Based on several author review meetings with some of the leading researchers from the parenting field having extensive experience in questionnaire item development based on qualitative and advanced statistical methods , 30 items were dropped prior to data analysis from the list of parenting items. These items were dropped because of redundancy of item content or ambiguity. Data reduction procedures i. The use of the total sample provided adequate power to perform the data reduction procedures on the list of items. Table 2 gives an indication of the number of items within each of the five parenting constructs and the corresponding sub-constructs.

A second-order CFA was used to validate the hypothesized five-factor structure nurturance, structure, behavioral control, overprotection, and coercive control. The second-order model allowed for sub-constructs loading onto the higher order constructs. In the first model we constrained the parenting factors so they did not correlate, whereas in the second model they were allowed to correlate. Given that the data were not severely skewed or kurtosed, parameter estimates were obtained using the maximum likelihood estimation procedure. Items were dropped that did not fit the model i.

Rasch Modeling Multidimensional Partial Credit Model was employed to further assess the psychometric properties of the parenting questionnaire and to reduce items, using the ConQuest software [ 71 ]. These analyses were performed on the five parenting constructs separately, allowing us to incorporate the multidimensionality of sub-constructs within parenting constructs. The IRM analyses yield item infit statistics, item parameter difficulty estimates, Wright maps, and reliability indices.

Item fit was determined by computing the weighted mean square fit statistics for each item, which indicate whether residuals varied as much as expected given the observed distribution. Items with a weighted infit statistic between 0. Examination of item fit was the first step in removing items using IRM. The next step was to identify items with overlapping levels of item average difficulty via the Wright map.

In the context of general parenting, item difficulty refers to the level of agreement in performing the parenting practices. Among items with overlapping levels of difficulty, item removal decisions were based on several meetings with the research group ensuring content validity was not threatened. The strength of the relationship between the variables studied was assessed using correlation effect sizes as suggested by Cohen [ 75 ] with respect to partial correlations: small 0.

Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the contribution of socio-economic status SES indicators i. All predictor variables were entered simultaneously into the equation. Additionally, we excluded underweight children with a BMI z-score below Furthermore, we assessed whether scores on the general parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores differed depending on SES indicators i. Characteristics of the study samples are depicted in Table 1.

Most often, female caregivers completed the online survey. Child gender was nearly equally divided across the three samples. Most caregivers indicated they lived with the child and spouse percentages ranging from The U. The majority was White A large percentage of participants from the Netherlands, Belgium and the U. Our study populations were roughly representative samples of the Dutch, Belgian and U. Compared to the general U.

Participants with higher levels of education were slightly overrepresented in the current samples, but employment rates were largely similar to the general populations. Valid parental reported weight and height of their children was available for respondents. The mean BMI z-score was The fit slightly improved after allowing the parenting constructs to correlate i. Subsequently, 33 items were removed based on the following criteria: magnitude of loadings e.

IRM analyses on each of the five parenting constructs using multidimensional models indicated that all items had acceptable values for both the weighted mean square statistic and t statistic. To further reduce the number of items in the questionnaire, the Wright maps were visually inspected to assess overlapping item coverage across the latent parenting factors. Subsequently, 20 items were removed, until the total number of items per parenting sub-construct was around five based on the following criteria: items with overlapping levels of difficulty, contribution to construct coverage, and theoretical considerations.

Thereafter, IRM was repeated on the reduced set of items 62 items in total for each of the five parenting constructs. All items had acceptable values for both the weighted mean square statistic and t statistic range of infit statistics, t statistic between brackets: nurturance 0. Item difficulty estimates SE ranged from Based on the Wright map, the items of the parenting constructs of nurturance, structure, and behavioral control covered a restricted portion of participants only those scoring low on this factor in that the upper end of the continuum remained uncovered by items with higher levels of difficulty.

The reverse was seen for the other two parenting constructs of coercive control and overprotection. We refer to Table 2 for an overview of the number of items per parenting sub-construct and the reliability estimates. Associations between the parenting constructs on the reduced item questionnaire were as follows see Table 3 : nurturance, structure and behavioral control were positively intercorrelated as well as the constructs of overprotection and coercive control, with small to medium effect sizes. Additionally, both nurturance and structure were positively related with behavioral control and negatively related with coercive control. The negative relationship with overprotection was only significant for structure, not for nurturance.

Behavioral control on the other hand was positively related with overprotection and coercive control small effect sizes. These personality characteristics tended to be negatively correlated with coercive control and overprotection. However, conscientiousness was positively associated with overprotection and not associated with coercive control, and agreeableness was not associated with overprotection.

For the personality characteristic of neuroticism, negative correlations with nurturance and structure were found, whereas positive correlations were found with behavioral control, coercive control and overprotection small to medium effect sizes. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the contribution of both SES indicators i. Furthermore, we assessed whether scores on the general parenting constructs differed depending on SES indicators and child BMI z-scores results not reported in table. BMI z-scores did not differ significantly among children with employed or unemployed parents.

We started the development of the CGPQ with a item instrument based on our parenting model, populated with existing items from previously developed questionnaires and refinement through author review meetings. Prior to data analysis, 30 items were dropped because of redundancy of item content or ambiguity. As a result of the author review, we elected to incorporate an additional sub-construct in the construct of behavioral control, i. This process resulted in an item questionnaire representing the five parenting constructs and their corresponding sub-constructs each covered by five items. To ensure that parents could comprehend the wording of the parenting items, the answer options and the instructions, five cognitive interviews were conducted in the Netherlands and the U.

For the U. Families with eligible 5- to year-old children, who previously indicated an interest in being contacted for studies, were identified and contacted. A fifteen dollar gift card was provided to the caregiver for participation. For the Dutch cognitive interviews, participants also represented a convenience sample, recruited using personal network of the interviewer. The participants received a ten euro gift card for participation. For both countries, only minor changes were made in wording of items.

Questionnaire completion time was about 15 minutes. Caregivers reported the instruction, items and answer options of the questionnaire were easy to understand and parents agreed that all aspects of parenting were covered. The current version of the questionnaire that resulted from the mixed-method approach as described above is incorporated in the online Supplement Additional file 1 to this manuscript. A parenting model, consisting of five constructs of parenting i. CFA supported our five-factor model moderately fitting and together with IRM analyses helped us to reduce redundant items.

Different approaches have been developed to conceptualize patterns of parenting, besides the typological approach to parenting. Whereas Maccoby and Martin [ 42 ] described authoritative parents high on two dimensions responsiveness and demandingness , Steinberg [ 43 ] typified it by high levels on the dimensions of warmth and acceptance, psychological autonomy or democracy, and behavioral control. However, this approach does not take into account the possibility of having different combinations of parenting and its multidimensionality [ 81 ], and all identified facets of the control construct [ 82 ].

Skinner et al. We suggest using latent class analyses or mixture modeling [ 83 ] for future studies using the CGPQ in order to assess the contribution and interaction of all five parenting constructs, which we propose will allow for better differentiation among parenting styles. As such, different combinations of the five parenting constructs may be used to characterize different clusters of parenting. This approach is supported in work of Grusec and Davidov [ 84 ], who imply that processes within each parenting domain are interacting with those in other domains.

Confirming the findings of the meta-analytic review by Prinzie et al. Parents scoring high on the traits of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness of experience also scored higher on positive aspects of parenting i. Such parents generally provide supportive, structured and consistent home climates in which their parenting behaviors are expressed. These personality characteristics were generally inversely related to coercive control. Relationships of personality with overprotection were less pronounced. A reason for this might be that this construct was not covered by a wide range of items and reliability was low.

Neuroticism characterized by proneness to frustration, anger and distress was indeed associated with low levels of nurturance and coercive forms of control, but also with chaotic home environments and overprotection. In our study, relationships between general parenting and child BMI z-scores were weak. A statistically significant effect for overprotection was found, indicating a potentially detrimental impact of overprotection on weight development.

The pattern of associations between parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores confirmed theoretical assumptions negative associations of child BMI with parental nurturance, structure and behavioral control and positive associations of child BMI with parental coercive control and overprotection , especially in the subsample excluding underweight children. Our study confirms the findings of previous studies in which also weak and potentially indirect effects of general parenting on weight status were found.

To specify, Cislak, Safron, Pratt, Gaspar, and Luszczynska [ 52 ] conducted a systematic umbrella review and found that more general variables including general parenting constructs were found to have indirect and weaker effects on weight-related behaviors than more behavior-specific variables. Thus, general parenting is considered to be a more distal factor of actual child behavior than more proximal behavior-specific parenting practices [ 52 ]. Involving informants other than parents in the assessment of child behavioral outcomes therefore seems particularly interesting in future research on parenting styles. Furthermore, inspecting a normally developing sample generally results into a low occurrence of inadequate parenting practices and child behavioral problems.

Studying parenting styles in a clinical sample could certainly supplement this view because more variation in parenting practices may yield more or different parenting styles. Hoeve et al. In addition, the role of parental psychological control in identifying parenting styles may be more pronounced in a clinical sample; an issue that to date remains unresolved. The present sample closely resembled the population distribution with regard to family composition and paternal educational level, but it was rather homogeneous for ethnicity and mothers were more highly educated.

As such, the present findings may not generalize to minority groups or families with less educated mothers; an issue that should be resolved by future studies. For example, previous research has demonstrated that harsh punishment and psychological control are more common among lower SES parents e. The present study clearly complements the scarce body of research on naturally occurring joint parenting styles conducted in US samples, but additional research is needed to replicate these findings.

Moreover, as parenting occurs within a cultural belief system that influences attitudes towards particular parenting practices Durrant et al. Finally, the cross-sectional associations among joint parenting styles and child outcomes should be complemented by longitudinal research to gain more insight into the directionality of these associations. Longitudinal research covering the entire childhood and adolescence period could also increase our understanding of age-of-child and sex-of parent differences in naturally occurring parenting styles. Despite these limitations, this study adds to the literature by further empirically validating well-known parenting styles and by increasing our understanding of the role of parental psychological control and joint parenting.

The overlap between harsh punishment and parental psychological control in congruent parenting styles and its unique role in the uninvolved parenting style suggests that this intrusive parenting dimension should be routinely considered in practice settings. We also found that adequate behavior controlling practices may be particularly interesting in preventing behavioral problems; and that not only an authoritarian but also a psychologically intrusive parenting style can impede upon child development.

SK: designed and executed the study, conducted part of the data-analysis, and wrote the paper. EC: conducted the cluster analyses, and collaborated in the writing and editing of the final manuscript. All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the KU Leuven University of Leuven and with the Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal of Child and Family Studies. J Child Fam Stud. Published online Sep Sofie Kuppens 1, 2 and Eva Ceulemans 3. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Sofie Kuppens, Email: eb. Corresponding author. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Although parenting styles constitute a well-known concept in parenting research, two issues have largely been overlooked in existing studies. Keywords: Parenting styles, Cluster analysis, Psychological control, Psychosocial outcomes, School-aged children. Method Participants Participants were Flemish families with an elementary-school child boys; girls.

Procedure We used data on parenting collected in a Flemish large-scale study on social determinants of child psychosocial functioning including three cohorts: 8—, 9— and 10— year olds. Parental psychological control Parents assessed their own psychologically controlling behavior by means of a Dutch version of the Psychological Control Scale Barber ; Kuppens et al. Clusters with Two Parenting Dimensions In a first step, we conducted a K —means cluster analysis on the maternal and paternal ratings only using the four parental support and behavioral support subscales for each parent i. Open in a separate window. Cluster profiles of the analysis based on two parenting dimensions.

Clusters with Three Parenting Dimensions In a second step, we performed the same K —means cluster analysis, but now psychological control was included as a third parenting dimension. Cluster profiles of the analysis based on three parenting dimensions. Mean subscale scores on child behavioral outcomes per parenting style. Discussion With this study, we aimed to add to the parenting styles literature by identifying empirically derived joint parenting styles based on data regarding the three major parenting dimensions as perceived by both mothers and fathers raising elementary school children.

Author Contributions SK: designed and executed the study, conducted part of the data-analysis, and wrote the paper. Notes Conflict of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Ethical Approval All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the KU Leuven University of Leuven and with the Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed Consent Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Psychological Bulletin. Journal of Adolescence. Parental psychological control: revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development. Reintroducing parental psychological control. In: Barber BK, editor. Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents.

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Note that a more recent meta-analytic review confirmed benefits of the program over Baumrind Configurational Model months post-intervention in comparison to no Baumrind Configurational Model, but not active treatment, control conditions: Steven M. Depression and anxiety disorders in parents and children: Results for the Yale family study Archives of General Psychiatry — PubMed. Journal of Clinical Child and Baumrind Configurational Model Psychology, Baumrind Configurational Model— Baumrind Configurational Model You can also search Baumrind Configurational Model this author Baumrind Configurational Model PubMed Baumrind Configurational Model Scholar. Quality of life and mental health Baumrind Configurational Model family caregivers of patients with terminal cancer. Personality and Intersectionality In Sociology Interaction. Cohen Baumrind Configurational Model.

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