🔥🔥🔥 Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay
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12 Angry Men - The Value of Human Life
Hand voted for Roosevelt again in and , but he remained vigilant on the constitutional dangers of big government. He had no hesitation in condemning Roosevelt's bill to expand the Supreme Court and pack it with New Dealers. Hand was increasingly called upon to judge cases arising from the flood of New Deal legislation. The line between central government authority and local legislation particularly tested his powers of judgment.
In , the case of United States v. Schechter came before the Second Circuit. They ruled that the National Industrial Recovery Act did not apply to the Schechter Poultry Corporation, which traded solely within the state. Hand became an acknowledged expert on New Deal statutes. He relished the challenge of interpreting such legislation, calling it "an act of creative imagination". On the one hand he must not enforce whatever he thinks best; he must leave that to the common will expressed by the government.
On the other, he must try as best he can to put into concrete form what that will is, not by slavishly following the words, but by trying honestly to say what was the underlying purpose expressed. When war broke out in Europe in , Learned Hand adopted an anti-isolationist stance. He rarely spoke out publicly, not only because of his position but because he thought bellicosity unseemly in an old man. In this post, Hand succeeded Martin Manton , who had resigned after corruption allegations that later led to Manton's criminal conviction for bribery.
Having sat in two cases in which Manton accepted bribes, Hand worried for years afterward that he should have detected his colleague's corruption. Hand still regarded his main job as judging. As circuit leader, he sought to free himself and his judges from too great an administrative burden. He concentrated on maintaining good relations with his fellow judges and on cleansing the court of patronage appointments. Despite the Manton case and constant friction between two of the court's judges, Charles Edward Clark and Jerome Frank , the Second Circuit under Hand earned a reputation as one of the best appeal courts in the country's history. In , Hand's friends once again lobbied for him to fill a Supreme Court vacancy, but Roosevelt did not appoint him.
The president gave age as the reason, but philosophical differences with Hand may also have played a part. Douglas 's autobiographies, where Douglas states that, despite Roosevelt's belief that Hand was the best person for the job, Roosevelt had been offended by the pressure Justice Felix Frankfurter placed on the president during a vigorous letter-writing campaign on Hand's behalf. Hand was relieved when the United States entered the war in December He felt free to participate in organizations and initiatives connected with the war effort, and was particularly committed to programs in support of Greece and Russia. He backed Roosevelt for the election , partly because he feared a return to isolationism and the prolonging of the wartime erosion of civil liberties.
Hand's contemporary at Harvard College, Robert Morss Lovett , was one of those accused, and Hand spoke out on his behalf. He also condemned the Nuremberg war-crimes trials , which he saw as motivated by vengeance; he did not believe that "aggressive war" could be construed as a crime. Hand had never been well known to the general public, but a short speech he made in won him fame and a national reputation for learnedness that lasted until the end of his life. Liberty, he said, was not located in America's constitutions, laws, and courts, but in the hearts of the people. In what would become the speech's most quoted passage, Hand asked:.
What then is the spirit of liberty? I cannot define it; I can only tell you my own faith. The spirit of liberty is the spirit which is not too sure that it is right; the spirit of liberty is the spirit which seeks to understand the minds of other men and women; the spirit of liberty is the spirit which weighs their interests alongside its own without bias; the spirit of liberty remembers that not even a sparrow falls to earth unheeded; the spirit of liberty is the spirit of Him who, near two thousand years ago, taught mankind that lesson it has never learned, but has never quite forgotten; that there may be a kingdom where the least shall be heard and considered side by side with the greatest.
Extracts of the speech appeared in The New Yorker on June Several weeks later, The New York Times printed the whole text. Life magazine and Reader's Digest followed soon after. His biographer Gerald Gunther, noting the paradox of the agnostic Hand's use of religious overtones, suggests that the most challenging aspect of the speech was that the spirit of liberty must entertain doubt. Learned Hand's 75th birthday in was much celebrated in the press and in legal circles.
Burlingham, Hand's former sponsor, for example, called him "now unquestionably the first among American judges". He continued to work as before, combining his role as presiding judge of the Second Circuit with his engagement in political issues. In , he voiced his opposition to a proposed "group libel" statute that would have banned defamation of racial or minority groups. He argued that such a law would imply that intolerance could base itself upon evidence. The effect of the proposed prosecutions, he said, would be "rather to exacerbate than to assuage the feelings which lie behind the defamation of groups". In the postwar period, Hand shared the dismay of his compatriots about Stalinism and the onset of the Cold War.
At the same time, he was sensitive to the domestic problems created by what he saw as a hysterical fear of international Communism. Already in , he noted that "the frantic witch hunters are given free rein to set up a sort of Inquisition, detecting heresy wherever non-conformity appears". Hand particularly despised the anti-Communist campaign of Senator Joseph McCarthy that began in and which became known as McCarthyism. Though Hand expressed his horror of McCarthyism privately, he hesitated to do so publicly because cases arising from it were likely to come before his court. During this period, Hand took part in three cases that posed a particular challenge to his impartiality on Cold War issues: United States v.
Coplon , Dennis v. United States , and United States v. Department of Justice worker Judith Coplon had been sentenced to 15 years in prison for stealing and attempting to pass on defense information. In , her appeal came before a Second Circuit panel that included Learned Hand. It rested on her claim that her rights under the Fourth Amendment had been infringed by a warrantless search , and that details of illegal wiretaps had not been fully disclosed at trial. Although Hand was unambiguous in his view Coplon had been guilty of the charges against her, he nonetheless rejected the trial judge's conclusion that a warrantless arrest had been justified.
He ruled therefore that papers seized during the arrest had been inadmissible as evidence. In his opinion , Hand wrote: "[F]ew weapons in the arsenal of freedom are more useful than the power to compel a government to disclose the evidence on which it seeks to forfeit the liberty of its citizens. Hand's position in the case Dennis v. United States contrasted sharply with his Coplon opinion. He ruled that calls for the violent overthrow of the American government posed enough of a "probable danger" to justify the invasion of free speech. In , Hand wrote a scathing dissent from a Second Circuit decision affirming the perjury conviction of William Remington , a government economist accused of Communist sympathies and activities.
In , the same panel had originally overturned Remington's conviction for perjury. Rather than retrying Remington on their original perjury charges, the government instead brought new perjury charges based on his testimony at the first trial. He was convicted of two charges. In the latter appeal, Hand was outvoted two to one. The prosecution produced stronger evidence against Remington at the second trial, much of it obtained from his wife. Sentenced to three years' imprisonment, Remington was murdered in November by two fellow inmates, who beat him over the head with a brick wrapped in a sock. According to Hand's biographer Gunther, "The image of Remington being bludgeoned to death in prison haunted Hand for the rest of his life. Only after stepping down from his position as a full-time judge in did Hand join the public debate on McCarthyism.
Shortly after his semi-retirement, he gave an unscripted speech that was published in The Washington Post , an anti-McCarthy newspaper. Hand wrote:. I will not say of my brother that he may be a traitor," but I will say, "Produce what you have. I will judge it fairly, and if he is, he shall pay the penalties; but I will not take it on rumor. I will not take it on hearsay. I will remember that what has brought us up from savagery is a loyalty to truth, and truth cannot emerge unless it is subjected to the utmost scrutiny"—will you not agree that a society that has lost sight of that, cannot survive?
Hand followed this up with an address to the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York the next year. Once again, his attack on McCarthyism won approval from many liberals. Asked to send a copy of his views to McCarthy, Hand replied that he had Richard Nixon in mind as well. In , Hand retired from "regular active service" as a federal judge.
Knopf expected to make a profit. In fact, the book earned admiring reviews, sold well, and made Hand more widely known. Louis Dow had died in , with Frances Hand at his side. The Hands' marriage then entered its final, happiest phase, in which they rediscovered their first love. Former law clerks have provided intimate details of Hand's character during the last decade of his life. Legal philosopher Ronald Dworkin recalls that Hand, scrupulous about public economy, used to turn out the lights in all the offices at the end of each day. For the same reason, he refused Dworkin the customary month's paid vacation at the end of his service. Shortly afterward, to Dworkin's surprise, Hand wrote him a personal check for an extra month's pay as a wedding present.
Gunther remembers him throwing a paperweight in his direction which narrowly missed. In a typical memo, he wrote, "This is the most miserable of cases, but we must dispose of it as though it had been presented by actual lawyers. Learned Hand remained in good physical and mental condition for most of the last decade of his life. These lectures proved to be Hand's last major critique of judicial activism , a position he had first taken up in with his attack on the Lochner ruling.
Board of Education ,  which in Hand's opinion had exceeded its powers by overruling Jim Crow segregation laws. Published as The Bill of Rights , the lectures nevertheless became a national bestseller. Catcher in the Rye author J. Salinger became a neighbor in Cornish, New Hampshire in , and Hand became Salinger's best and almost only friend as Salinger become more and more reclusive. By , Hand was suffering from intense pain in his back and faced difficulty in walking.
The truth is that 86 is too long. In , he worked briefly on President Dwight Eisenhower 's "Commission on National Goals", but he resigned because "it involved more work than in the present state of my health I care to add to the judicial work that I am still trying to do". By June , Hand was in a wheelchair. He joked that he felt idle because he had taken part in no more than about 25 cases that year, and that he would start another job if he could find one. The New York Times ran a front-page obituary. The Times of London wrote: "There are many who will feel that with the death of Learned Hand the golden age of the American judiciary has come to an end. Hand's study of philosophy at Harvard left a lasting imprint on his thought.
As a student, he lost his faith in God, and from that point on he became a skeptic. Hand's civil instincts were at odds with the duty of a judge to stay aloof from politics. In his opinion, members of a democratic society should be involved in legislative decision-making. In practice, this even meant that those who wish to promote ideas repugnant to the majority should be free to do so, within broad limits.
Hand's skepticism extended to his political philosophy : he once described himself as "a conservative among liberals, and a liberal among conservatives". In contrast, Hamilton argued that freedom depends on government: too much freedom leads to anarchy and the tyranny of the mob. He assumed the goal of human beings to be the "good life", defined as each individual chooses. Between and , Hand tried to translate his political philosophy into political action.
Having read Croly's The Promise of American Life and its anti-Jeffersonian plea for government intervention in economic and social issues, he joined the Progressive Party. The pragmatic philosophy Hand had imbibed from William James at Harvard required each issue to be individually judged on its merits, without partiality. In contrast, political action required partisanship and a choice between values. His belief in central planning resurfaced during the s in his growing approval of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, as he once again—though this time as an observer—endorsed a program of government intervention. Hand has been called one of the United States' most significant judicial philosophers. New York , which had struck down a law prohibiting bakery staff from working more than ten hours a day.
The Supreme Court went on to strike down a series of similar worker-protective laws on the grounds that they restricted freedom of contract. Roosevelt's legislation. He viewed it as a judicial " usurpation " for the Supreme Court to assume the role of a third chamber in these cases. The answer, for Hand, lay in the separation of powers : courts should be independent and act on the legislation of elected governments. Hand's democratic respect for legislation meant that he hardly ever struck down a law. He adhered to the doctrine of presumptive validity, which assumes that legislators know what they are doing when they pass a law.
Schechter Poultry. In this important case, he ruled that a New Deal law on working conditions did not apply to a New York poultry firm that conducted its business only within the state. With the wisdom of that plan we have nothing whatever to do He believed that courts should protect the right to free speech even against the majority will. In Hand's view, judges must remain detached at times when public opinion is hostile to minorities and governments issue laws to repress those minorities. In his decision on Masses Publishing Co. Patten , he defined his position on political incitement:. Detestation of existing policies is easily transformed into forcible resistance of the authority which puts them in execution, and it would be folly to disregard the causal relation between the two.
Yet to assimilate agitation, legitimate as such, with direct incitement to violent resistance, is to disregard the tolerance of all methods of political agitation which in normal times is a safeguard for free government. The distinction is not scholastic subterfuge, but a hard-bought acquisition in the fight for freedom. In the case of United States v. Dennis in , Hand made a ruling that appeared to contradict his Masses decision. By then, a series of precedents had intervened, often based on Oliver Wendell Holmes's " clear and present danger " test, leaving him less room for maneuver.
In the opinion of Kathryn Griffith, "The importance of Learned Hand's philosophy in terms of practical application to the courts lies generally in his view of the pragmatic origin of all law, but most specifically in his unique interpretation of the Bill of Rights. He even advocated the removal of those clauses from the Constitution. In Hand's analysis, "due process" is no more than a stock phrase to cover a long tradition of common law procedure. The result was the misuse of due process to invade rights that the Constitution was designed to protect.
For Hand, a law passed by an elected body should be presumed to meet the test of due process. A court that decides otherwise and strikes down such a law is acting undemocratically. Critics of his position included his colleague on the Second Circuit, Jerome Frank , who wrote: "[I]t seems to me that here, most uncharacteristically, Judge Hand indulges in a judgement far too sweeping, one which rests on a too-sharp either-or, all or nothing, dichotomy.
Obviously the courts cannot do the whole job. But just as obviously, they can sometimes help to arrest evil popular trends at their inception. Richard Posner , an influential appellate judge reviewing a biography of Hand, asserts that Hand "displayed a positive antipathy toward constitutional law. To exaggerate only a little, he didn't think judges should have anything to do with it. Learned Hand wrote approximately four thousand judicial opinions during his career. Admired for their clarity and analytic precision, they have been quoted more often in Supreme Court opinions and by legal scholars than those of any other lower-court judge. Kennerley  and his ruling in United States v.
Levine  have often been cited in obscenity cases. His use of historical data to gauge legislative intent has become a widespread practice. According to Archibald Cox : "The opinions of Judge Hand have had significant influence both in breaking down the restrictions imposed by the dry literalism of conservative tradition and in showing how to use with sympathetic understanding the information afforded by the legislative and administrative processes. In his dedication, Chafee wrote, "[Hand] during the turmoil of war courageously maintained the traditions of English-speaking freedom and gave it new clearness and strength for the wiser years to come.
Learned Hand played a key role in the interpretation of new federal crime laws in the period following the passing of the U. Criminal Code in Our procedure has always been haunted by the ghost of the innocent man convicted. What we need to fear is the archaic formalism and watery sentiment that obstructs, delays and defeats the prosecution of crime. Hand balanced these views with important decisions to protect a defendant's constitutional rights concerning unreasonable searches, forced confessions and cumulative sentences.
His opinions have also proved lasting in fields of commercial law. Law students studying torts often encounter Hand's decision for United States v. Carroll Towing Co. In tax decisions, as in all statutory cases, Hand studied the intent of the original legislation. His opinions became a valuable guide to tax administrators. Aluminum Company of America in influenced the development of antitrust law. Hand was also a founding member of the American Law Institute , where he helped develop the influential Restatements of the Law serving as models for refining and improving state codes in various fields. After Hand's lectures and publications became widely known, his influence reached courts throughout the country.
His opinions command respect wherever our law extends, not because of his standing in the judicial hierarchy, but because of the clarity of thought and the cogency of reasoning that shape them. To the wider public, who knew little of his legal work, Hand was by then a folk hero. On Hand's retirement in , Felix Frankfurter predicted that his "actual decisions will be all deader than the Dodo before long, as at least many of them are already". Hand's eloquence as a writer played a larger part in the spread of his influence than the substance of his decisions; and Schick believes that the Hand myth brushes over contradictions in his legal philosophy.
Hand's reputation as a libertarian obscures the fact that he was cautious as a judge. Though a liberal, he argued for judicial restraint in interpreting the Constitution, and regarded the advancement of civil liberties as a task for the legislature, not the courts. In his Holmes Lectures, for example, he voiced doubts about the constitutionality of the Warren Court 's civil rights rulings. Finally, in an essay called Origin of a Hero discussing his novel the Rector of Justin , author Louis Auchincloss says the main character was not based on a headmaster; certainly not as was often speculated Groton's famous Endicott Peabody.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American judge. Democratic before Republican — Progressive — Quoted from Hand's Holmes Lectures. Wyzanski, quoted in Schick , p. This switch did not prove permanent: over the course of the years, Hand voted equally for Democratic and Republican candidates. Kennerley , Fed. Hicklin , LR 3 QB The new party structure incorporated Jane Addams ' Progressive Service , an educational organization aimed at spreading the reformist agenda to the public and to the legislators. Patten , Fed. United States , U. Taft had once dismissed Hand as "a wild Roosevelt man and a Progressive". Schechter , 76 F. Caught between the dog and the fireplug, or how to survive public service. Washington, Dc: Georgetown University Press. ISBN Douglas, qtd in Ashworth.
Quoted in Melvin I. Urofsky, William O. Lovett was removed from his government job by an Act of Congress, but in the Supreme Court ruled his dismissal unconstitutional as a bill of attainder. Coplon , F. United States , F. Remington , F. New York , U. Get lasting results 10x faster than with any other vocabulary study tool. Our members love them for their smart design and effectiveness. Boost your skills in privacy, at your own speed, without grades, pressure, or embarrassment. LearnThatWord is the only fully managed solution that builds this automaticity.
We are so confident in the results, we guarantee them! We provide unlimited free tutoring to students worldwide. Add this list Hide words Unit 1 29 words the, be, and, of, a, in, to, have, it, I, that, for, you, he, with, on, do, say, this, they, at, but, we, his, from, not, by, she, or. Add this list Hide words Unit 2 30 words as, what, go, their, can, who, get, if, would, her, all, my, make, about, know, will, up, one, time, there, year, so, think, when, which, them, some, me, people, take. Add this list Hide words Unit 3 30 words out, into, just, see, him, your, come, could, now, than, like, other, how, then, its, our, two, more, these, want, way, look, first, also, new, because, day, use, no, man.
Add this list Hide words Unit 4 30 words find, here, thing, give, many, well, only, those, tell, very, even, back, any, good, woman, through, us, life, child, work, down, may, after, should, call, world, over, school, still, try. Add this list Hide words Unit 5 30 words last, ask, need, too, feel, three, state, never, become, between, high, really, something, most, another, much, family, own, leave, put, old, while, mean, keep, student, why, let, great, same, big. Add this list Hide words Unit 6 30 words group, begin, seem, country, help, talk, where, turn, problem, every, start, hand, might, American, show, part, against, place, such, again, few, case, week, company, system, each, right, program, hear, question.
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Add this list Hide words Unit 10 30 words continue, set, later, community, name, five, once, white, least, president, learn, real, change, team, minute, best, several, idea, kid, body, information, nothing, ago, lead, social, understand, whether, watch, together, follow. Add this list Hide words Unit 11 30 words parent, stop, face, anything, create, public, already, speak, others, read, level, allow, add, office, spend, door, health, person, art, sure, war, history, party, within, grow, result, open, morning, walk, reason.
Add this list Hide words Unit 12 30 words low, win, research, girl, guy, early, food, moment, himself, air, teacher, force, offer, enough, education, across, although, remember, foot, second, boy, maybe, toward, able, age, policy, everything, love, process, music. Add this list Hide words Unit 13 30 words including, consider, appear, actually, buy, probably, human, wait, serve, market, die, send, expect, sense, build, stay, fall, oh, nation, plan, cut, college, interest, death, course, someone, experience, behind, reach, local.
Add this list Hide words Unit 14 30 words kill, six, remain, effect, yeah, suggest, class, control, raise, care, perhaps, late, hard, field, else, pass, former, sell, major, sometimes, require, along, development, themselves, report, role, better, economic, effort, decide. Add this list Hide words Unit 15 30 words rate, strong, possible, heart, drug, leader, light, voice, wife, whole, police, mind, finally, pull, return, free, military, price, less, according, decision, explain, son, hope, develop, view, relationship, carry, town, road. Add this list Hide words Unit 16 30 words drive, arm, true, federal, break, difference, thank, receive, value, international, building, action, full, model, join, season, society, tax, director, position, player, agree, especially, record, pick, wear, paper, special, space, ground.
Add this list Hide words Unit 17 30 words form, support, event, official, whose, matter, everyone, center, couple, site, project, hit, base, activity, star, table, court, produce, eat, teach, oil, half, situation, easy, cost, industry, figure, street, image, itself. Add this list Hide words Unit 18 30 words phone, either, data, cover, quite, picture, clear, practice, piece, land, recent, describe, product, doctor, wall, patient, worker, news, test, movie, certain, north, personal, simply, third, technology, catch, step, baby, computer. Add this list Hide words Unit 19 30 words type, attention, draw, film, republican, tree, source, red, nearly, organization, choose, cause, hair, century, evidence, window, difficult, listen, soon, culture, billion, chance, brother, energy, period, summer, realize, hundred, available, plant.
Add this list Hide words Unit 20 30 words likely, opportunity, term, short, letter, condition, choice, single, rule, daughter, administration, south, husband, congress, floor, campaign, material, population, economy, medical, hospital, church, close, thousand, risk, current, fire, future, wrong, involve. Add this list Hide words Unit 21 30 words defense, anyone, increase, security, bank, myself, certainly, west, sport, board, seek, per, subject, officer, private, rest, behavior, deal, performance, fight, throw, top, quickly, past, goal, bed, order, author, fill, represent.
Add this list Hide words Unit 22 30 words focus, foreign, drop, blood, upon, agency, push, nature, color, recently, store, reduce, sound, note, fine, near, movement, page, enter, share, common, poor, natural, race, concern, series, significant, similar, hot, language. Add this list Hide words Unit 23 30 words usually, response, dead, rise, animal, factor, decade, article, shoot, east, save, seven, artist, scene, stock, career, despite, central, eight, thus, treatment, beyond, happy, exactly, protect, approach, lie, size, dog, fund.
Add this list Hide words Unit 24 30 words serious, occur, media, ready, sign, thought, list, individual, simple, quality, pressure, accept, answer, resource, identify, left, meeting, determine, prepare, disease, whatever, success, argue, cup, particularly, amount, ability, staff, recognize, indicate. Add this list Hide words Unit 25 30 words character, growth, loss, degree, wonder, attack, herself, region, television, box, TV, training, pretty, trade, election, everybody, physical, lay, general, feeling, standard, bill, message, fail, outside, arrive, analysis, benefit, sex, forward.
Add this list Hide words Unit 26 30 words lawyer, present, section, environmental, glass, skill, sister, pm, professor, operation, financial, crime, stage, ok, compare, authority, miss, design, sort, act, ten, knowledge, gun, station, blue, strategy, clearly, discuss, indeed, truth. Add this list Hide words Unit 27 30 words song, example, democratic, check, environment, leg, dark, various, rather, laugh, guess, executive, prove, hang, entire, rock, forget, claim, remove, manager, enjoy, network, legal, religious, cold, final, main, science, green, memory. Add this list Hide words Unit 28 30 words card, above, seat, cell, establish, nice, trial, expert, spring, firm, democrat, radio, visit, management, avoid, imagine, tonight, huge, ball, finish, yourself, theory, impact, respond, statement, maintain, charge, popular, traditional, onto.
Add this list Hide words Unit 29 30 words reveal, direction, weapon, employee, cultural, contain, peace, pain, apply, measure, wide, shake, fly, interview, manage, chair, fish, particular, camera, structure, politics, perform, bit, weight, suddenly, discover, candidate, production, treat, trip. Add this list Hide words Unit 30 30 words evening, affect, inside, conference, unit, style, adult, worry, range, mention, deep, edge, specific, writer, trouble, necessary, throughout, challenge, fear, shoulder, institution, middle, sea, dream, bar, beautiful, property, instead, improve, stuff.
Add this list Hide words Unit 31 30 words detail, method, somebody, magazine, hotel, soldier, reflect, heavy, sexual, bag, heat, marriage, tough, sing, surface, purpose, exist, pattern, whom, skin, agent, owner, machine, gas, ahead, generation, commercial, address, cancer, item. Add this list Hide words Unit 32 30 words reality, coach, Mrs, yard, beat, violence, total, tend, investment, discussion, finger, garden, notice, collection, modern, task, partner, positive, civil, kitchen, consumer, shot, budget, wish, painting, scientist, safe, agreement, capital, mouth.
Add this list Hide words Unit 33 30 words nor, victim, newspaper, threat, responsibility, smile, attorney, score, account, interesting, audience, rich, dinner, vote, western, relate, travel, debate, prevent, citizen, majority, none, front, born, admit, senior, assume, wind, key, professional. Add this list Hide words Unit 34 30 words mission, fast, alone, customer, suffer, speech, successful, option, participant, southern, fresh, eventually, forest, video, global, senate, reform, access, restaurant, judge, publish, relation, release, bird, opinion, credit, critical, corner, concerned, recall.
Add this list Hide words Unit 35 30 words version, stare, safety, effective, neighborhood, original, troop, income, directly, hurt, species, immediately, track, basic, strike, sky, freedom, absolutely, plane, nobody, achieve, object, attitude, labor, refer, concept, client, powerful, perfect, nine. Add this list Hide words Unit 36 30 words therefore, conduct, announce, conversation, examine, touch, please, attend, completely, variety, sleep, involved, investigation, nuclear, researcher, press, conflict, spirit, replace, British, encourage, argument, camp, brain, feature, afternoon, am, weekend, dozen, possibility.
Add this list Hide words Unit 37 30 words insurance, department, battle, beginning, date, generally, African, sorry, crisis, complete, fan, stick, define, easily, hole, element, vision, status, normal, Chinese, ship, solution, stone, slowly, scale, university, introduce, driver, attempt, park. Add this list Hide words Unit 38 30 words spot, lack, ice, boat, drink, sun, distance, wood, handle, truck, mountain, survey, supposed, tradition, winter, village, soviet, refuse, sales, roll, communication, screen, gain, resident, hide, gold, club, farm, potential, European. Add this list Hide words Unit 39 30 words presence, independent, district, shape, reader, MS, contract, crowd, Christian, express, apartment, willing, strength, previous, band, obviously, horse, interested, target, prison, ride, guard, terms, demand, reporter, deliver, text, tool, wild, vehicle.
Add this list Hide words Unit 40 30 words observe, flight, facility, understanding, average, emerge, advantage, quick, leadership, earn, pound, threaten, bright, operate, guest, sample, contribute, tiny, block, protection, settle, feed, collect, additional, highly, identity, title, mostly, lesson, faith. Add this list Hide words Unit 41 30 words river, promote, living, count, unless, marry, tomorrow, technique, path, ear, shop, folk, principle, survive, lift, border, competition, jump, gather, limit, fit, cry, equipment, worth, associate, critic, warm, aspect, insist, failure. Add this list Hide words Unit 42 30 words annual, French, Christmas, comment, responsible, affair, procedure, regular, spread, chairman, baseball, soft, ignore, egg, belief, demonstrate, anybody, murder, gift, religion, review, editor, engage, coffee, document, speed, cross, influence, anyway, threaten.
Add this list Hide words Unit 43 30 words commit, female, youth, wave, afraid, quarter, background, native, broad, wonderful, deny, apparently, slightly, reaction, twice, suit, perspective, growing, blow, construction, intelligence, destroy, cook, connection, burn, shoe, grade, context, committee, hey. Add this list Hide words Unit 44 30 words mistake, location, clothes, Indian, quiet, dress, promise, aware, neighbor, function, bone, active, extend, chief, combine, wine, below, cool, voter, learning, bus, hell, dangerous, remind, moral, united, category, relatively, victory, academic. Add this list Hide words Unit 45 30 words Internet, healthy, negative, following, historical, medicine, tour, depend, photo, finding, grab, direct, classroom, contact, justice, participate, daily, fair, pair, famous, exercise, knee, flower, tape, hire, familiar, appropriate, supply, fully, actor.
Add this list Hide words Unit 46 30 words birth, search, tie, democracy, eastern, primary, yesterday, circle, device, progress, bottom, island, exchange, clean, studio, train, lady, colleague, application, neck, lean, damage, plastic, tall, plate, hate, otherwise, writing, male, alive. Add this list Hide words Unit 47 30 words expression, football, intend, chicken, army, abuse, theater, shut, map, extra, session, danger, welcome, domestic, lots, literature, rain, desire, assessment, injury, respect, northern, nod, paint, fuel, leaf, dry, Russian, instruction, pool.
Add this list Hide words Unit 48 30 words climb, sweet, engine, fourth, salt, expand, importance, metal, fat, ticket, software, disappear, corporate, strange, lip, reading, urban, mental, increasingly, lunch, educational, somewhere, farmer, sugar, planet, favorite, explore, obtain, enemy, greatest. Add this list Hide words Unit 49 30 words complex, surround, athlete, invite, repeat, carefully, soul, scientific, impossible, panel, meaning, mom, married, instrument, predict, weather, presidential, emotional, commitment, supreme, bear, pocket, thin, temperature, surprise, poll, proposal, consequence, breath, sight.
Add this list Hide words Unit 50 30 words balance, adopt, minority, straight, connect, works, teaching, belong, aid, advice, okay, photograph, empty, regional, trail, novel, code, somehow, organize, jury, breast, Iraqi, acknowledge, theme, storm, union, desk, thanks, fruit, expensive. Add this list Hide words Unit 51 30 words yellow, conclusion, prime, shadow, struggle, conclude, analyst, dance, regulation, being, ring, largely, shift, revenue, mark, locate, county, appearance, package, difficulty, bridge, recommend, obvious, basically, e-mail, generate, anymore, propose, thinking, possibly.
Add this list Hide words Unit 52 30 words trend, visitor, loan, currently, comfortable, investor, profit, angry, crew, accident, meal, hearing, traffic, muscle, notion, capture, prefer, truly, earth, Japanese, chest, thick, cash, museum, beauty, emergency, unique, internal, ethnic, link. Add this list Hide words Unit 53 30 words stress, content, select, root, nose, declare, appreciate, actual, bottle, hardly, setting, launch, file, sick, outcome, ad, defend, duty, sheet, ought, insure, catholic, extremely, extent, component, mix, long-term, slow, contrast, zone. Add this list Hide words Unit 54 30 words wake, airport, brown, shirt, pilot, warn, ultimately, cat, contribution, capacity, ourselves, estate, guide, circumstance, snow, English, politician, steal, pursue, slip, percentage, meat, funny, neither, soil, surgery, correct, Jewish, blame, estimate.
Add this list Hide words Unit 55 30 words due, basketball, golf, investigate, crazy, significantly, chain, branch, combination, frequently, governor, relief, user, dad, kick, manner, ancient, silence, rating, golden, motion, German, gender, solve, fee, landscape, used, bowl, equal, forth. Add this list Hide words Unit 56 30 words frame, typical, except, conservative, eliminate, host, hall, trust, ocean, row, producer, afford, meanwhile, regime, division, confirm, fix, appeal, mirror, tooth, smart, length, entirely, rely, topic, complain, variable, telephone, perception, attract. Add this list Hide words Unit 57 30 words confidence, bedroom, secret, debt, rare, tank, nurse, coverage, opposition, aside, anywhere, bond, pleasure, master, era, requirement, fun, expectation, wing, separate, somewhat, pour, stir, judgment, beer, reference, tear, doubt, grant, seriously.
Add this list Hide words Unit 58 30 words minister, totally, hero, industrial, cloud, stretch, winner, volume, seed, surprised, fashion, pepper, busy, intervention, copy, tip, cheap, aim, cite, welfare, vegetable, gray, dish, beach, improvement, everywhere, opening, overall, divide, initial. Add this list Hide words Unit 59 30 words terrible, oppose, contemporary, route, multiple, essential, league, criminal, careful, core, upper, rush, necessarily, specifically, tired, employ, holiday, vast, resolution, household, fewer, abortion, apart, witness, match, barely, sector, representative, beneath, beside.
Add this list Hide words Unit 60 30 words incident, limited, proud, flow, faculty, increased, waste, merely, mass, emphasize, experiment, definitely, bomb, enormous, tone, liberal, massive, engineer, wheel, decline, invest, cable, towards, expose, rural, AIDS, Jew, narrow, cream, secretary. Add this list Hide words Unit 61 30 words gate, solid, hill, typically, noise, grass, unfortunately, hat, legislation, succeed, celebrate, achievement, fishing, accuse, useful, reject, talent, taste, characteristic, milk, escape, cast, sentence, unusual, closely, convince, height, physician, assess, plenty.
Add this list Hide words Unit 62 30 words virtually, addition, sharp, creative, lower, approve, explanation, gay, campus, proper, guilty, acquire, compete, technical, plus, immigrant, weak, illegal, hi, alternative, interaction, column, personality, signal, curriculum, honor, passenger, assistance, forever, regard. Add this list Hide words Unit 63 30 words Israeli, association, twenty, knock, wrap, lab, display, criticism, asset, depression, spiritual, musical, journalist, prayer, suspect, scholar, warning, climate, cheese, observation, childhood, payment, sir, permit, cigarette, definition, priority, bread, creation, graduate.
Add this list Hide words Unit 64 30 words request, emotion, scream, dramatic, universe, gap, excellent, deeply, prosecutor, lucky, drag, airline, library, agenda, recover, factory, selection, primarily, roof, unable, expense, initiative, diet, arrest, funding, therapy, wash, schedule, sad, brief. Add this list Hide words Unit 65 30 words housing, post, purchase, existing, steel, regarding, shout, remaining, visual, fairly, chip, violent, silent, suppose, self, bike, tea, perceive, comparison, settlement, layer, planning, description, slide, widely, wedding, inform, portion, territory, immediate.
Add this list Hide words Unit 66 30 words opponent, abandon, lake, transform, tension, leading, bother, consist, alcohol, enable, bend, saving, desert, shall, error, cop, Arab, double, sand, Spanish, print, preserve, passage, formal, transition, existence, album, participation, arrange, atmosphere. Add this list Hide words Unit 67 30 words joint, reply, cycle, opposite, lock, deserve, consistent, resistance, discovery, exposure, pose, stream, sale, pot, grand, mine, hello, coalition, tale, knife, resolve, racial, phase, joke, coat, Mexican, symptom, manufacturer, philosophy, potato. Add this list Hide words Unit 68 30 words foundation, quote, online, negotiation, urge, occasion, dust, breathe, elect, investigator, jacket, glad, ordinary, reduction, rarely, pack, suicide, numerous, substance, discipline, elsewhere, iron, practical, moreover, passion, volunteer, implement, essentially, gene, enforcement.
Add this list Hide words Unit 69 30 words vs, sauce, independence, marketing, priest, amazing, intense, advance, employer, shock, inspire, adjust, retire, visible, kiss, illness, cap, habit, competitive, juice, congressional, involvement, dominate, previously, whenever, transfer, analyze, attach, disaster, parking. Add this list Hide words Unit 70 30 words prospect, boss, complaint, championship, fundamental, severe, enhance, mystery, impose, poverty, entry, spending, king, evaluate, symbol, maker, mood, accomplish, emphasis, illustrate, boot, monitor, Asian, entertainment, bean, evaluation, creature, commander, digital, arrangement.
Add this list Hide words Unit 71 30 words concentrate, usual, anger, psychological, heavily, peak, approximately, increasing, disorder, missile, equally, vary, wire, round, distribution, transportation, holy, twin, command, commission, interpretation, breakfast, strongly, engineering, luck, so-called, constant, clinic, veteran, smell. Add this list Hide words Unit 72 30 words tablespoon, capable, nervous, tourist, toss, crucial, bury, pray, tomato, exception, butter, deficit, bathroom, objective, electronic, ally, journey, reputation, mixture, surely, tower, smoke, confront, pure, glance, dimension, toy, prisoner, fellow, smooth. Add this list Hide words Unit 73 30 words nearby, peer, designer, personnel, educator, relative, immigration, belt, teaspoon, birthday, implication, perfectly, coast, supporter, accompany, silver, teenager, recognition, retirement, flag, recovery, whisper, gentleman, corn, moon, inner, junior, throat, salary, swing.
Add this list Hide words Unit 74 30 words observer, publication, crop, dig, permanent, phenomenon, anxiety, unlike, wet, literally, resist, convention, embrace, assist, exhibition, construct, viewer, pan, consultant, administrator, occasionally, mayor, consideration, CEO, secure, pink, buck, historic, poem, grandmother. Add this list Hide words Unit 75 30 words bind, fifth, constantly, enterprise, favor, testing, stomach, apparent, weigh, install, sensitive, suggestion, mail, recipe, reasonable, preparation, wooden, elementary, concert, aggressive, false, intention, channel, extreme, tube, drawing, protein, quit, absence, Latin.
Add this list Hide words Unit 76 30 words rapidly, jail, diversity, honest, Palestinian, pace, employment, speaker, impression, essay, respondent, giant, cake, historian, negotiate, restore, substantial, pop, specialist, origin, approval, quietly, advise, conventional, depth, wealth, disability, shell, criticize, effectively. Add this list Hide words Unit 77 30 words biological, onion, deputy, flat, brand, assure, mad, award, criteria, dealer, via, utility, precisely, arise, armed, nevertheless, highway, clinical, routine, wage, normally, phrase, ingredient, stake, Muslim, fiber, activist, Islamic, snap, terrorism.
Add this list Hide words Unit 78 30 words refugee, incorporate, hip, ultimate, switch, corporation, valuable, assumption, gear, barrier, minor, provision, killer, assign, gang, developing, classic, chemical, label, teen, index, vacation, advocate, draft, extraordinary, heaven, rough, yell, pregnant, distant. Add this list Hide words Unit 79 30 words drama, satellite, personally, clock, chocolate, Italian, Canadian, ceiling, sweep, advertising, universal, spin, button, bell, rank, darkness, clothing, super, yield, fence, portrait, survival, roughly, lawsuit, testimony, bunch, found, burden, react, chamber. Add this list Hide words Unit 80 30 words furniture, cooperation, string, ceremony, communicate, cheek, lost, profile, mechanism, disagree, penalty, IE, resort, destruction, unlikely, tissue, constitutional, pant, stranger, infection, cabinet, broken, apple, electric, proceed, bet, literary, virus, stupid, dispute.Over the course of Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay novel, attitudes towards Health Care Inequality dramatically shift especially Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay the early s of Stanzi and Charlotte's generation. An Fetal Tissue Donation Ethics of jury Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay in medical malpractice, products liability, and other areas where controversial verdicts have Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay to calls Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay reforms of the jury or civil justice system. A man of broad Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay, Thayer Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay a major influence on Hand's jurisprudence. He came Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay accept Frankfurter's view that redistribution of wealth was essential for economic recovery. The derogative slang used for the Japanese represents a lack of understanding and fear the bombing of Darwin and attack Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay Sydney left many feeling Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay vulnerable to the Japanese. Add this list Hide words Unit Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay words consecutive, coordinate, spy, slot, riot, nutrient, citizenship, severely, sovereignty, ridge, brave, lighting, specify, contributor, frustrate, articulate, importantly, transit, dense, Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay, electronics, sunny, shorts, birches robert frost analysis, accusation, soften, Juror 3 Character Analysis Essay, terribly, cue, bride. It might be a good starting point for you.