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Malcolm X - Civil Rights Activist - Mini Bio - BIO
Hosted in parks, these outdoor parties became a means of expression and an outlet for teenagers, where "instead of getting into trouble on the streets, teens now had a place to expend their pent-up energy. MC Kid Lucky mentions that "people used to break-dance against each other instead of fighting". The lyrical content of many early rap groups focused on social issues, most notably in the seminal track "The Message" by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five , which discussed the realities of life in the housing projects.
Billboard Hot —the song itself is usually considered new wave and fuses heavy pop music elements, but there is an extended rap by Harry near the end. In , Kurtis Blow released his self-titled debut album featuring the single " The Breaks ", which became the first certified gold rap song. Instead of simply rapping over disco beats, Bambaataa and producer Arthur Baker created an electronic sound using the Roland TR drum machine and sampling from Kraftwerk.
In , Hashim created the influential electro funk tune " Al-Naafiysh The Soul ", while Warp 9's " Light Years Away " , "a cornerstone of early 80s beat box afrofuturism ", introduced socially conscious themes from a Sci-Fi perspective, paying homage to music pioneer Sun Ra. Pioneers such as Doug E. Fresh ,  Biz Markie and Buffy from the Fat Boys made beats, rhythm, and musical sounds using their mouth, lips, tongue, voice, and other body parts. The appearance of music videos changed entertainment: they often glorified urban neighborhoods. These films expanded the appeal of hip hop beyond the boundaries of New York. By , youth worldwide were embracing the hip hop culture.
The hip hop artwork and "slang" of U. Women artists have also been at the forefront of the hip hop movement since its inception in the Bronx. Nevertheless, as gangsta rap became the dominant force in hip hop music, there were many songs with misogynistic anti-women lyrics and many music videos depicted women in a sexualized fashion. The negation of female voice and perspective is an issue that has come to define mainstream hip hop music. The recording industry is less willing to back female artists than their male counterparts, and when it does back them, often it places emphasis on their sexuality over their musical substance and artistic abilities.
With the commercial success of gangsta rap in the early s, the emphasis in lyrics shifted to drugs, violence, and misogyny. Early proponents of gangsta rap included groups and artists such as Ice-T , who recorded what some consider to be the first gangster rap single, " 6 in the Mornin' ",  and N. A whose second album Niggaz4Life became the first gangsta rap album to enter the charts at number one. Considering albums such as N. According to the U. Department of State, hip hop is "now the center of a mega music and fashion industry around the world" that crosses social barriers and cuts across racial lines. Hip hop sounds and styles differ from region to region, but there are also instances of fusion genres. This was made possible by the adaptation of music in different locations, and the influence on style of behavior and dress.
However, despite hip hop music produced on the island lacking widespread local and international recognition, artists such as Five Steez have defied the odds by impressing online hip hop taste-makers and even reggae critics. Hartwig Vens argues that hip hop can also be viewed as a global learning experience. Even when hip hop is transplanted to other countries, it often retains its "vital progressive agenda that challenges the status quo. Hip hop has played a small but distinct role as the musical face of revolution in the Arab Spring , one example being an anonymous Libyan musician, Ibn Thabit , whose anti-government songs fueled the rebellion.
In the early-to-mid s, there wasn't an established hip hop music industry, as exists in the s, with record labels, record producers , managers and Artists and Repertoire staff. Politicians and businesspeople maligned and ignored the hip hop movement. Most hip hop artists performed in their local communities and recorded in underground scenes. However, in the late s, music industry executives realized that they could capitalize on the success of "gangsta rap".
They made a formula that created "a titillating buffet of hypermasculinity and glorified violence. They ignored the depictions of a harsh reality to focus on the sex and violence involved. In an article for The Village Voice , Greg Tate argues that the commercialization of hip hop is a negative and pervasive phenomenon, writing that "what we call hiphop is now inseparable from what we call the hip hop industry, in which the nouveau riche and the super-rich employers get richer".
However, in his book In Search Of Africa ,  Manthia Diawara states that hip hop is really a voice of people who are marginalized in modern society. He argues that the "worldwide spread of hip hop as a market revolution" is actually global "expression of poor people's desire for the good life", and that this struggle aligns with "the nationalist struggle for citizenship and belonging, but also reveals the need to go beyond such struggles and celebrate the redemption of the black individual through tradition.
Industry executives seem to bet on the idea that men won't want to listen to female rappers, so they are given fewer opportunities. As the hip hop genre has changed since the s, the African-American cultural "tradition" that Diawara describes has little place in hip hop's mainstream artists music. The push toward materialism and market success by contemporary rappers such as Rick Ross , Lil Wayne and Jay Z has irked older hip hop fans and artists.
They see the genre losing its community-based feel that focused more on black empowerment than wealth. The commercialization of the genre stripped it of its earlier political nature and the politics and marketing plans of major record labels have forced rappers to craft their music and images to appeal to white, affluent and suburban audiences. There, rappers had opportunities to be interviewed and have their music videos played. The commercialization has made hip hop less edgy and authentic, but it also has enabled hip hop artists to become successful.
As top rappers grow wealthier and start more outside business ventures, this can indicate a stronger sense of black aspiration. As rappers such as Jay-Z and Kanye West establish themselves as artists and entrepreneurs, more young black people have hopes of achieving their goals. Katy Perry, a white woman, was criticized for her hip hop song " Dark Horse ". Like the blues , these arts were developed by African American communities to enable people to make a statement, whether political or emotional and participate in community activities. These practices spread globally around the s as fans could "make it their own" and express themselves in new and creative ways in music, dance and other arts.
DJing and turntablism are the techniques of manipulating sounds and creating music and beats using two or more phonograph turntables or other sound sources, such as tapes, CDs or digital audio files and a DJ mixer that is plugged into a PA system. In addition to developing Herc's techniques, DJs Grandmaster Flowers , Grandmaster Flash , Grand Wizzard Theodore , and Grandmaster Caz made further innovations with the introduction of " scratching ", which has become one of the key sounds associated with hip hop music. Traditionally, a DJ will use two turntables simultaneously and mix between the two.
These are connected to a DJ mixer, an amplifier , speakers , and various electronic music equipment such as a microphone and effects units. The result of mixing two records is a unique sound created by the seemingly combined sound of two separate songs into one song. Although there is considerable overlap between the two roles, a DJ is not the same as a record producer of a music track. DJs were often avid record collectors, who would hunt through used record stores for obscure soul records and vintage funk recordings. DJs helped to introduce rare records and new artists to club audiences. In the early years of hip hop, the DJs were the stars, as they created new music and beats with their record players.
While DJing and turntablism continue to be used in hip hop music in the s, the star role has increasingly been taken by MCs since the late s, due to innovative, creative MCs such as Kurtis Blow and Melle Mel of Grandmaster Flash 's crew, the Furious Five , who developed strong rapping skills. However, a number of DJs have gained stardom nonetheless in recent years. The underground movement of turntablism has also emerged to focus on the skills of the DJ. In the s, there are turntablism competitions, where turntablists demonstrate advanced beat juggling and scratching skills. Rapping also known as emceeing,  MCing,  spitting bars ,  or just rhyming  refers to "spoken or chanted rhyming lyrics with a strong rhythmic accompaniment".
While rapping is often done over beats, either done by a DJ, a beatboxer , it can also be done without accompaniment. It can be broken down into different components, such as "content", "flow" rhythm and rhyme , and "delivery". Graffiti is the most controversial of hip hop's elements, as a number of the most notable graffiti pioneers say that they do not consider graffiti to be an element of hip hop, including Lady Pink , Seen , Blade, Fargo, Cholly Rock, Fuzz One, and Coco Frankly I grew up with disco music. There's a long background of graffiti as an entity unto itself,"   and Fargo says, "There is no correlation between hip hop and graffiti, one has nothing to do with the other.
How do they intertwine? In America in the late s, before hip hop, graffiti was used as a form of expression by political activists. He was a member of the "Savage Skulls" gang, and started writing his nickname in his neighborhood as early as According to the article Julio had been writing for a couple of years when Taki began tagging his own name all around the city. Taki also states in the article that Julio "was busted and stopped. Julio never rose to Taki's fame because Julio kept his tags localized to his own neighborhood.
One of the most common forms of graffiti is tagging, or the act of stylizing your unique name or logo. Spray painting public property or the property of others without their consent can be considered vandalism, and the "tagger" may be subject to arrest and prosecution for the criminal act. Whether legal or not, the hip hop culture considers tagging buildings, trains, bridges and other structures as visual art, and consider the tags as part of a complex symbol system with its own social codes and subculture rules. Such art is in some cases now subject to federal protection in the US, making its erasure illegal.
Bubble lettering held sway initially among writers from the Bronx , though the elaborate Brooklyn style Tracy dubbed " wildstyle " would come to define the art. The relationship between graffiti and hip hop culture arises both from early graffiti artists engaging in other aspects of hip hop culture,  Graffiti is understood as a visual expression of rap music, just as breaking is viewed as a physical expression. The film Wild Style is widely regarded as the first hip hop motion picture, which featured prominent figures within the New York graffiti scene during that period.
The book Subway Art and the documentary Style Wars were also among the first ways the mainstream public were introduced to hip hop graffiti. Graffiti remains part of hip hop, while crossing into the mainstream art world with exhibits in galleries throughout the world. Like many aspects of hip hop culture, breakdance borrows heavily from many cultures, including s-era street dancing,   Brazilian and Asian Martial arts , Russian folk dance ,  and the dance moves of James Brown , Michael Jackson , and California funk. Breaking took form in the South Bronx in the s alongside the other elements of hip hop.
Breakdancing is typically done with the accompaniment of hip hop music playing on a boom box or PA system. According to the documentary film The Freshest Kids: A History of the B-Boy , DJ Kool Herc describes the "B" in B-boy as short for breaking, which at the time was slang for "going off", also one of the original names for the dance. However, early on the dance was known as the "boing" the sound a spring makes. Dancers at DJ Kool Herc's parties saved their best dance moves for the percussion break section of the song, getting in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive, frenetic style. The "B" in B-boy or B-girl also stands simply for break, as in break-boy or -girl.
Before the s, B-girls' presence was limited by their gender minority status, navigating sexual politics of a masculine-dominated scene, and a lack of representation or encouragement for women to participate in the form. The few B-girls who participated despite facing gender discrimination carved out a space for women as leaders within the breaking community, and the number of B-girls participating has increased. Beatboxing is the technique of vocal percussion , in which a singer imitates drums and other percussion instruments with her or his voice. It is primarily concerned with the art of creating beats or rhythms using the human mouth. It was first popularized by Doug E.
It is generally considered to be part of the same "Pillar" of hip hop as DJing—in other words, providing a musical backdrop or foundation for MC's to rap over. Beatboxers can create their beats just naturally, but many of the beatboxing effects are enhanced by using a microphone plugged into a PA system. This helps the beatboxer to make their beatboxing loud enough to be heard alongside a rapper, MC, turntablist, and other hip hop artists. It declined in popularity along with b-boying in the late s, but has undergone a resurgence since the late s, marked by the release of "Make the Music " by Rahzel of The Roots.
Although it is not described as one of the four core elements that make up hip hop, music producing is another important element. In music, record producers play a similar role in sound recording that film directors play in making a movie. The record producer recruits and selects artists rappers, MCs, DJs, beatboxers, and so on , plans the vision for the recording session, coaches the performers on their songs, chooses audio engineers , sets out a budget for hiring the artists and technical experts, and oversees the entire project. The exact roles of a producer depend on each individual, but some producers work with DJs and drum machine programmers to create beats, coach the DJs in the selection of sampled basslines , riffs and catch phrases , give advice to rappers, vocalists, MCs and other artists, give suggestions to performers on how to improve their flow and develop a unique personal style.
Some producers work closely with the audio engineer to provide ideas on mixing, effects units e. The producer may independently develop the "concept" or vision for a project or album, or develop the vision in collaboration with the artists and performers. In hip hop, since the beginning of MCing, there have been producers who work in the studio, behind the scenes, to create the beats for MCs to rap over. Producers may find a beat they like on an old funk, soul, or disco record.
They then isolate the beat and turn it into a loop. Alternatively, producers may create a beat with a drum machine or by hiring a drumkit percussionist to play acoustic drums. The producer could even mix and layer different methods, such as combining a sampled disco drum break with a drum machine track and some live, newly recorded percussion parts or a live electric bass player. A beat created by a hip hop producer may include other parts besides a drum beat, such as a sampled bassline from a funk or disco song, dialogue from a spoken word record or movie, or rhythmic "scratching" and "punches" done by a turntablist or DJ.
An early beat maker was producer Kurtis Blow , who won producer of the year credits in , , and Known for the creation of sample and sample loops, Blow was considered the Quincy Jones of early hip hop, a reference to the prolific African American record producer, conductor, arranger, composer, musician and bandleader. One of the most influential beat makers was J. Dilla, a producer from Detroit who chopped samples by specific beats and would combine them together to create his unique sound. Those who create these beats are known as either beat makers or producers, however producers are known to have more input and direction on the overall the creation of a song or project, while a beat maker just provides or creates the beat.
As Dr. Dre has said before "Once you finish the beat, you have to produce the record. Most beats in hip hop are sampled from a pre-existing record. This means that a producer will take a portion or a "sample" of a song and reuse it as an instrumental section, beat or portion of their song. This loop provides an accompaniment for an MC to rap over. The tools needed to make beats in the late s were funk, soul, and other music genre records , record turntables , DJ mixers , audio consoles , and relatively inexpensive Portastudio -style multitrack recording devices.
In the s and s, beat makers and producers used the new electronic and digital instruments that were developed, such as samplers, sequencers, drum machines, and synthesizers. From the s to the s, various beat makers and producers have used live instruments, such as drum kit or electric bass on some tracks. To record the finished beats or beat tracks, beat makers and producers use a variety of sound recording equipment, typically multitrack recorders. Digital audio workstations , also known as DAWs, became more common in the s for producers. DAWs have made it possible for more people to be able to make beats in their own home studio, without going to a recording studio.
Beat makers who own DAWs do not have to buy all the hardware that a recording studio needed in the s huge 72 channel audio consoles, multitrack recorders, racks of rackmount effects units , because era DAWs have everything they need to make beats on a good quality, fast laptop computer. Beats are such an integral part of rap music that many producers have been able to make instrumental mixtapes or albums. Even though these instrumentals have no rapping, listeners still enjoy the inventive ways the producer mixes different beats, samples and instrumental melodies. Some hip hop records come in two versions: a beat with rapping over it, and an instrumental with just the beat.
The instrumental in this case is provided so that DJs and turntablists can isolate breaks, beats and other music to create new songs. The development of hip hop linguistics is complex. Source material include the spirituals of slaves arriving in the new world, Jamaican dub music, the laments of jazz and blues singers, patterned cockney slang and radio deejays hyping their audience using rhymes. Academics suggest its development stems from a rejection of the racial hierarchy of language, which held "White English" as the superior form of educated speech.
There are also a number of words which predate hip hop, but are often associated with the culture, with homie being a notable example. One particular example is the rule-based slang of Snoop Dogg and E , who add -izzle or -izz to the end or middle of words. Hip Hop lyrics have also been known for containing swear words. It is often used in the negative connotation of a woman who is a shallow "money grubber". Some female artists have tried to reclaim the word and use it as a term of empowerment. Regardless, the hip hop community has recently taken an interest in discussing the use of the word "bitch" and whether it is necessary in rap.
In Canada, the use of non-standard variants of French, such as Franglais , a mix of French and English, by groups such as Dead Obies  or Chiac such as Radio Radio  has powerful symbolic implications for Canadian language politics and debates on Canadian identity. In the United States rappers choose to rap in English, Spanish , or Spanglish , depending on their own backgrounds and their intended audience.
Hip hop has made a considerable social impact since its inception in the s. Patterson argues that mass communication is controlled by the wealthy, the government, and major businesses in Third World nations and countries around the world. As a result, the youth are influenced by the American hip hop scene and start their own forms of hip hop. Patterson believes that revitalization of hip hop music will occur around the world as traditional values are mixed with American hip hop music,  and ultimately a global exchange process will develop that brings youth around the world to listen to a common musical form of hip hop. It has also been argued that rap music formed as a "cultural response to historic oppression and racism, a system for communication among black communities throughout the United States".
In the s, hip hop lyrics are starting to reflect original socially conscious themes. Rappers are starting to question the government's power and its oppressive role in some societies. Members of minority communities—such as Algerians in France , and Turks in Germany —use rap as a platform to protest racism, poverty, and social structures. Hip hop lyricism has gained a measure of legitimacy in academic and literary circles. Studies of hip hop linguistics are now offered at institutions such as the University of Toronto , where poet and author George Eliot Clarke has taught the potential power of hip hop music to promote social change.
Hip hop texts are rich in imagery and metaphors and can be used to teach irony, tone, diction, and point of view. Hip hop texts can be analyzed for theme, motif, plot, and character development. Both Grand Master Flash and T. Eliot gazed out into their rapidly deteriorating societies and saw a "wasteland. Hip hop music has been censored on radio and TV due to the explicit lyrics of certain genres. Many songs have been criticized for anti-establishment and sometimes violent messages. The use of profanity as well as graphic depictions of violence and sex in hip hop music videos and songs makes it hard to broadcast on television stations such as MTV, in music video form, and on radio.
As a result, many hip hop recordings are broadcast in censored form, with offending language "bleeped" or blanked out of the soundtrack, or replaced with "clean" lyrics. The result — which sometimes renders the remaining lyrics unintelligible or contradictory to the original recording — has become almost as widely identified with the genre as any other aspect of the music, and has been parodied in films such as Austin Powers in Goldmember , in which Mike Myers ' character Dr. Evil — performing in a parody of a hip hop music video " Hard Knock Life Ghetto Anthem " by Jay-Z — performs an entire verse that is blanked out. In , Roger Ebert wrote: . Rap has a bad reputation in white circles, where many people believe it consists of obscene and violent anti-white and anti-female guttural.
Some of it does. Most does not. Most white listeners don't care; they hear black voices in a litany of discontent, and tune out. Yet rap plays the same role today as Bob Dylan did in , giving voice to the hopes and angers of a generation, and a lot of rap is powerful writing. In June , a U. Professor Louis Gates testified on behalf of The 2 Live Crew, arguing that the material that the county alleged was profane actually had important roots in African-American vernacular, games, and literary traditions and should be protected.
Many black rappers--including Ice-T and Sister Souljah--contend that they are being unfairly singled out because their music reflects deep changes in society not being addressed anywhere else in the public forum. The white politicians, the artists complain, neither understand the music nor desire to hear what's going on in the devastated communities that gave birth to the art form. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that reflects the violent culture of inner-city American black youths. Ice-T released " 6 in the Mornin' ", which is often regarded as the first gangsta rap song, in After the national attention that Ice-T and N. A created in the late s and early s, gangsta rap became the most commercially lucrative subgenre of hip hop.
A is the group most frequently associated with the founding of gangsta rap. Their lyrics were more violent, openly confrontational, and shocking than those of established rap acts, featuring incessant profanity and, controversially, use of the word " nigga ". These lyrics were placed over rough, rock guitar-driven beats, contributing to the music's hard-edged feel. The first blockbuster gangsta rap album was N. A's Straight Outta Compton , released in Straight Outta Compton would establish West Coast hip hop as a vital genre, and establish Los Angeles as a legitimate rival to hip hop's long-time capital, New York City.
Straight Outta Compton sparked the first major controversy regarding hip hop lyrics when their song " Fuck tha Police " earned a letter from FBI Assistant Director Milt Ahlerich, strongly expressing law enforcement 's resentment of the song. The song was intended to speak from the viewpoint of a criminal getting revenge on racist, brutal cops. Ice-T's rock song infuriated government officials, the National Rifle Association and various police advocacy groups.
Ice-T suggested that the furor over the song was an overreaction, telling journalist Chuck Philips " But I don't hear anybody complaining about that. But nobody wants a black man to write a record about a cop killer. What started out as an underground art form has become a vehicle to expose a lot of critical issues that are not usually discussed in American politics. The problem here is that the White House and wanna-be's like Bill Clinton represent a political system that never intends to deal with inner city urban chaos," Sister Souljah told The Times.
The show was exemplified by music videos such as " Tip Drill " by Nelly , which was criticized for what many viewed as an exploitative depiction of women, particularly images of a man swiping a credit card between a stripper's buttocks. The group, having politically radical and Marxist lyrical content, said the cover meant to symbolize the destruction of capitalism. Their record label pulled the album until a new cover could be designed. Critics such as Businessweek ' s David Kiley argue that the discussion of products within hip hop culture may actually be the result of undisclosed product placement deals.
The symbiotic relationship has also stretched to include car manufacturers, clothing designers and sneaker companies,  and many other companies have used the hip hop community to make their name or to give them credibility. One such beneficiary was Jacob the Jeweler , a diamond merchant from New York. He created jewelry pieces from precious metals that were heavily loaded with diamond and gemstones.
As his name was mentioned in the song lyrics of his hip hop customers, his profile quickly rose. Arabo expanded his brand to include gem-encrusted watches that retail for hundreds of thousands of dollars, gaining so much attention that Cartier filed a trademark-infringement lawsuit against him for putting diamonds on the faces of their watches and reselling them without permission. While some brands welcome the support of the hip hop community, one brand that did not was Cristal champagne maker Louis Roederer. A article from The Economist magazine featured remarks from managing director Frederic Rouzaud about whether the brand's identification with rap stars could affect their company negatively.
His answer was dismissive: "That's a good question, but what can we do? We can't forbid people from buying it. Dre 's promotion of his Beats by Dr. Dre headphone line and Dr. Pepper , and Drake 's commercial with Sprite are successful deals. Although product placement deals were not popular in the s, MC Hammer was an early innovator in this type of strategy. With merchandise such as dolls, commercials for soft drinks and numerous television show appearances, Hammer began the trend of rap artists being accepted as mainstream pitchpeople for brands.
Hip hop culture has had extensive coverage in the media, especially in relation to television; there have been a number of television shows devoted to or about hip hop, including in Europe " H. For many years, BET was the only television channel likely to play hip hop, but in recent years [ when? Hip hop magazines describe hip hop's culture, including information about rappers and MCs, new hip hop music, concerts, events, fashion and history. It contained the first rap music record chart.
They knew the art form very well and noticed the need for a hip hop magazine. DJs and rappers did not have a way to learn about rap music styles and labels. The periodical began as the first Rap record chart and tip sheet for DJs and was distributed through national record pools and record stores throughout the New York City Tri-State area. One of the founding publishers, Charles Carroll noted, "Back then, all DJs came into New York City to buy their records but most of them did not know what was hot enough to spend money on, so we charted it. Another popular hip hop magazine that arose in the s was Word Up magazine , an American magazine catering to the youth with an emphasis on hip hop. It featured articles on what is like to be a part of the hip hop community, promoted up-coming albums, bringing awareness to the projects that the artist was involved in, and also included posters of trending celebrities within the world of Hip Hop.
Word Up magazine was highly popular, it was even mentioned in the popular song by The Notorious B. G - Juicy "it was all a dream, use to read WordUp magazine". Word Up magazine was a part of pop culture. New York tourists from abroad took the publication back home with them to other countries to share it, creating worldwide interest in the culture and new art form. The "Hip Hop Hit List" was also the first to define hip hop as a culture introducing the many aspects of the art form such as fashion, music, dance, the arts and most importantly the language.
Most interviews were written verbatim which included their innovative broken English style of writing. Some of the early charts were written in the graffiti format tag style but was made legible enough for the masses. The Carroll Brothers were also consultants to the many record companies who had no idea how to market hip hop music. Vincent Carroll, the magazine's creator-publisher, went on to become a huge source for marketing and promoting the culture of hip hop, starting Blow-Up Media, the first hip hop marketing firm with offices in NYC's Tribeca district.
At the age of 21, Vincent Carroll employed a staff of 15 and assisted in launching some of the culture's biggest and brightest stars the Fugees, Nelly, the Outzidaz, feat. Eminem and many more. The 21st century also ushered in the rise of online media, and hip hop fan sites now offer comprehensive hip hop coverage on a daily basis. Clothing, hair and other styles have been a big part of hip hop's social and cultural impact since the s. Although the styles have changed over the decades, distinctive urban apparel and looks have been an important way for rappers, breakdancers and other hip hop community members to express themselves.
As the hip hop music genre's popularity increased, so did the effect of its fashion. While there were early items synonymous with hip hop that crossed over into the mainstream culture, like Run-DMC's affinity for Adidas or the Wu-Tang Clan's championing of Clarks' Wallabees , it wasn't until its commercial peak that hip hop fashion became influential. Starting in the mid- to late s, hip hop culture embraced some major designers and established a new connection with classic fashion. Brands such as Ralph Lauren , Calvin Klein and Tommy Hilfiger all tapped into hip hop culture and gave very little in return. Moving into the new millennium, hip hop fashion consisted of baggy shirts, jeans, and jerseys. As names like Pharrell and Jay-Z started their own clothing lines and still others like Kanye West linked up with designers like Louis Vuitton , the clothes got tighter, more classically fashionable, and expensive.
As hip hop has a seen a shift in the means by which its artists express their masculinity, from violence and intimidation to wealth-flaunting and entrepreneurship, it has also seen the emergence of rapper branding. By the early s, major apparel companies "[had] realized the economic potential of tapping into hip hop culture Tommy Hilfiger was one of the first major fashion designer[s] who actively courted rappers as a way of promoting his street wear ". Hip Hop artists are trend-setters and taste-makers. Their fans range from minority groups who can relate to their professed struggles to majority groups who cannot truly relate but like to "consume the fantasy of living a more masculine life".
In exchange for giving artists free wardrobes, Hilfiger found its name mentioned in both rhyming verses of rap songs and their 'shout-out' lyrics, in which rap artists chant out thanks to friends and sponsors for their support. Hilfiger's success convinced other large mainstream American fashion design companies, like Ralph Lauren and Calvin Klein, to tailor lines to the lucrative market of hip hop artists and fans. Then I can do all those special things that big sisters do. Carlton: Like when you took up to the attic window and told me I could fly? Ashley: Or when you told me it was okay to roller-skate down the steps? Vivian: I thought we agreed to call him Philip.
Hilary: Ew, that's a stupid name. Hilary: to Geoffrey's son I think it's so great you're not embarrassed that your father has to do this stuff in people's lives that's too disgusting for them to do themselves. No offense, Geoffrey. Geoffrey: None taken, Miss Hilary. I always consider the source. Hilary: I know what I'm doing. Remember, I was a professional caterer. Will: And you still would be if you hadn't poisoned those nuns. Hilary: I mean, people stare at me all the time, but I'm pretty. Will: I guess that spandex don't got nothing to do with it, huh? Hilary: Will's dad is a deadbeat who left him and his mother flat. Philip: You didn't have the common sense to know that? Hilary: I don't have any common sense!
Philip: Right now, it's hard to love any one of you, but I do. Ashley, I love your sensitivity, your warmth. Carlton, I love your ambition and your persistence. Hilary: Yes, Daddy? Hilary: Oh, Daddy! Ashley Banks. Ashley Banks Tatyana M. Will: Ashley, Carlton ran way. Ashley: Great! Will: Hey, hey, hey! Come on, I'm being serious. Now I've been calling around. I don't know where he is. We gotta get in the car. We gotta go find him. Ashley: No, Will. I'm having a party. I'm carefree, understand? Free of cares? How's my hair and lips? Do I look okay?
Geoffrey Butler. Geoffrey Barbara Butler Joseph Marcell. Uncle Phil: Geoffrey, go fetch my tools. Geoffrey: You mean your knife and fork? Nicky Banks. Nicky Banks Ross Bagley. Nicky: [after coming upon Hilary and Ashley in the family room, pretending to be driving] What are you doing? Hilary: Driving lessons! Nicky: Lesson number one: use a car. Family Members. Had a hand in raising her younger siblings; as a result, she often feels as though they don't respect her if they decide to go against her wishes. Despite this, she has nothing but love for her family, especially her son.
Expository Hairstyle Change : She sported long hair in the first four seasons before sporting short hair in the last two seasons. Hypocrite : Related to the "Me" post. In her first episode, when she visits Will for Thanksgiving, she blasts Vivian for the privileged upbringing that she's giving her children when a It's none of her business how Vivian and Phil choose to raise their children and b The very reason she sent Will out there was so he could benefit from this. It's All About Me : Mild example and she quickly grows out of it, but early in the show, she cannot handle family members going against her wishes at all , to the point that when Janice gets engaged to Frank who's white , she's initially very disapproving of it, and when Janice understandably refuses to break up with him just because her sister told her to, she refuses to attend the wedding and tries to forbid Will from going as well.
She even says that her family not immediately obeying her means they no longer respect her and thus also no longer love her. Will calls her out on how ridiculous she's acting. Mama Bear : She acts as this to her son, her nieces and nephew, and her younger sisters, particularly Janice. Nice Girl : She is really sweet and kind and is caring to people close to her, especially her son Will whom she loves the most and is supportive of what he decides. Parents as People : She's a loving mother to Will, but being a single parent and sole breadwinner meant that she couldn't be involved in Will's life as much as Phil and Vivian can. She can also be smothering of Will at times without considering his feelings, such as when she expects him to move back to Philadelphia without realizing that he wants to stay in Bel-Air.
Thankfully she gets over it after a heart to heart. Romantic False Lead : She had one during the second half of Season 2. She ultimately broke up with him because he wanted more out of the relationship than she did. Sassy Black Woman : It's in the Smith family blood. Slap-Slap-Kiss : Goes from volleying insults with Fred in one scene to sleeping with him in the next. Small Role, Big Impact : She's the reason the entire show happens. To wit: "I got in one little fight and my mom got scared, saying 'you're living with your auntie and your uncle in Bel Air!
Lou Smith Ben Vereen Will's deadbeat father, who ran out on him and Vi when he was only four years old. He comes back into Will's life nearly 15 years later, with Will finally getting to experience some of the father-son times he'd previously never had Bitch in Sheep's Clothing : He can be charming and claims to want to genuinely reconnect with his son, but quickly shows his selfish true colors. Blatant Lies : All he ever does is tell lies or make excuses for why he abandoned Will, and he hasn't changed at all. Broken Pedestal : After abandoning him a second time, Lou all but confirms to Will that yes, Phil and Vivian were right and he is nothing but a cowardly, selfish, lying jerkass. Will never has a nice thing to say about him again, and it's hard to blame him.
Dirty Coward : While he never really explains why he abandoned Will and his mother, it's heavily implied he never expected to be a father and when Will turned 4 years old, he realized that he didn't want to be one, so he left without saying goodbye to avoid feeling guilty about it. When he returns to Will's life 14 years later, he is seen to try to reconnect with his son but the same fears of fatherhood return, leading him to make the same choice again. However, this time he's confronted by Phil, and Will realizes that his father was the coward they always said he was. Disappeared Dad : Abandoned his family when Will was only four years old. Evil Counterpart : To Uncle Phil. A horrible father figure who is absent in Will's life instead of a good father figure who actually supports and cares for Will.
Evil Cannot Comprehend Good : When he tries to explain why he walked out, Phil shoots him down, telling him he's been there. The difference being Phil was there for his family because it's what a man does. Lou concedes that Phil is a better man than him and asks if he's happy. Phil is incredulous that he thinks this was about being better than him. Hate Sink : If his first abandonment of Will didn't seal the deal, the second time he does this firmly cements him as this. Ignored Epiphany : He briefly seems to realize the consequences of his actions when Will uses his first name only to immediately walk out on him.
Jerkass : He's a deadbeat father played straight who continuously makes excuses whenever Will tries to spend time with him. Jerk with a Heart of Jerk : He abandoned his family when Will was only four years old. He then returns to Will fourteen years later to fix their strained relationship. Will openly accepts him and believes that his father has changed. Then, Lou quickly tries to abandons his son again when some "important business" comes up and he can't make time for his son. This leads to the most heart-wrenching scene in the series.
Eighteen-year-old Daunis Fontaine has never quite fit in, both in her hometown and on the nearby Ojibwe reservation. She dreams of a fresh start at college, but when family tragedy strikes, Daunis puts her future on hold to look after her fragile mother. Yet even as Daunis falls for Jamie, she senses the dashing hockey star is hiding something. Everything comes to light when Daunis witnesses a shocking murder, thrusting her into an FBI investigation of a lethal new drug. Reluctantly, Daunis agrees to go undercover, drawing on her knowledge of chemistry and Ojibwe traditional medicine to track down the source.
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You hold centuries of wisdom in your hands. Animal Farm and George Orwell. This edition features George Orwell's best known novels — and Animal Farm — with an introduction by Christopher Hitchens. In , London is a grim city where Big Brother is always watching you and the Thought Police can practically read your mind. Winston Smith joins a secret revolutionary organization called The Brotherhood, dedicated to the destruction of the Party. Together with his beloved Julia, he hazards his life in a deadly match against the powers that be. Animal Farm is Orwell's classic satire of the Russian Revolution -- an account of the bold struggle, initiated by the animals, that transforms Mr.
But are they? The Haunting of Hill House. Shirley Jackson. It is the story of four seekers who arrive at a notoriously unfriendly pile called Hill House: Dr. At first, their stay seems destined to be merely a spooky encounter with inexplicable phenomena. But Hill House is gathering its powers—and soon it will choose one of them to make its own. For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. With more than 1, titles, Penguin Classics represents a global bookshelf of the best works throughout history and across genres and disciplines.
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His name is Guts, the Black Swordsman, a feared warrior spoken of only in whispers. Bearer of a gigantic sword, an iron hand, and the scars of countless battles and tortures, his flesh is also indelibly marked with The Brand, an unholy symbol that draws the forces of darkness to him and dooms him as their sacrifice. But Guts won't take his fate lying down; he'll cut a crimson swath of carnage through the ranks of the damned - and anyone else foolish enough to oppose him! Accompanied by Puck the Elf, more an annoyance than a companion, Guts relentlessly follows a dark, bloodstained path that leads only to death Eckhart Tolle. Tolle describes how our attachment to the ego creates the dysfunction that leads to anger, jealousy, and unhappiness, and shows readers how to awaken to a new state of consciousness and follow the path to a truly fulfilling existence.
Illuminating, enlightening, and uplifting, A New Earth is a profoundly spiritual manifesto for a better way of life—and for building a better world. The Good Sister: A Novel. Sally Hepworth. There's only been one time that Rose couldn't stop me from doing the wrong thing and that was a mistake that will haunt me for the rest of my life. Fern Castle works in her local library. She has dinner with her twin sister Rose three nights a week. And she avoids crowds, bright lights and loud noises as much as possible. Fern has a carefully structured life and disrupting her routine can be When Rose discovers that she cannot get pregnant, Fern sees her chance to pay her sister back for everything Rose has done for her.
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When a string of horrific terrorist attacks plagues the Western world during the holiday season, the broader markets fall into a tailspin. The United States government has an asset who can turn the Iraqi against his masters: James Reece, the most-wanted domestic terrorist alive. After avenging the deaths of his family and team members, Reece emerges deep in the wilds of Mozambique, protected by the family of his estranged best friend and former SEAL Team member.
When a series of events uncovers his whereabouts, the CIA recruits him, using a Presidential pardon for Reece and immunity for the friends who helped him in his mission of vengeance. Now a reluctant tool of the United States government, Reece travels the globe, targeting terrorist leaders, unraveling a geopolitical conspiracy that exposes a traitorous CIA officer, and uncovering a sinister assassination plot with worldwide repercussions. Vol 3. Guts, the feared Black Swordsman, finishes his desperate battle with the monstrous Count, cutting and blasting him to gory scraps when the presence of the Count's daughter makes the monster hesitate.
But Guts won't even have the time to clean his gigantic sword when the Count's dying pleas activate the Behelit, summoning the five God Hands, demon lords of immeasurable power. Guts' journey so far has been a long road of pain and death, but that's a walk in the park compared to fighting his way out of Hell itself! Find your next favorite book. Midnight Sun. Stephenie Meyer. But until now, fans have heard only Bella's side of the story. At last, readers can experience Edward's version in the long-awaited companion novel, Midnight Sun. This unforgettable tale as told through Edward's eyes takes on a new and decidedly dark twist.
Meeting Bella is both the most unnerving and intriguing event he has experienced in all his years as a vampire. As we learn more fascinating details about Edward's past and the complexity of his inner thoughts, we understand why this is the defining struggle of his life. How can he justify following his heart if it means leading Bella into danger? In Midnight Sun , Stephenie Meyer transports us back to a world that has captivated millions of readers and brings us an epic novel about the profound pleasures and devastating consequences of immortal love.
Battle Ground. Harry has faced terrible odds before. He has a long history of fighting enemies above his weight class. The Red Court of vampires. The fallen angels of the Order of the Blackened Denarius. The Outsiders. A being more powerful and dangerous on an order of magnitude beyond what the world has seen in a millennium is coming. The Last Titan has declared war on the city of Chicago, and has come to subjugate humanity, obliterating any who stand in her way. Mark Manson. Dune: Volume 1. Book 1. Coveted across the known universe, melange is a prize worth killing for A stunning blend of adventure and mysticism, environmentalism and politics, Dune won the first Nebula Award, shared the Hugo Award, and formed the basis of what is undoubtedly the grandest epic in science fiction.
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. Turning the envelope over, his hand trembling, Harry saw a purple wax seal bearing a coat of arms; a lion, an eagle, a badger and a snake surrounding a large letter 'H'. Harry Potter has never even heard of Hogwarts when the letters start dropping on the doormat at number four, Privet Drive. Addressed in green ink on yellowish parchment with a purple seal, they are swiftly confiscated by his grisly aunt and uncle. Then, on Harry's eleventh birthday, a great beetle-eyed giant of a man called Rubeus Hagrid bursts in with some astonishing news: Harry Potter is a wizard, and he has a place at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. An incredible adventure is about to begin! Having now become classics of our time, the Harry Potter ebooks never fail to bring comfort and escapism to readers of all ages.
With its message of hope, belonging and the enduring power of truth and love, the story of the Boy Who Lived continues to delight generations of new readers. After We Collided. The inspiration behind the major motion picture After We Collided! Tessa has everything to lose. Hardin has nothing to lose Life will never be the same. After a tumultuous beginning to their relationship, Tessa and Hardin were on the path to making things work.
Hardin will always be But is he really the deep, thoughtful guy Tessa fell madly in love with despite his angry exterior, or has he been a stranger all along? She wishes she could walk away. Not with the memory of passionate nights spent in his arms. His electric touch. His hungry kisses. She put so much on hold for Hardin—school, friends, her mom, a relationship with a guy who really loved her, and now possibly even a promising new career. She needs to move forward with her life.
Hardin knows he made a mistake, possibly the biggest one of his life. But can he change? Will he change Tasty, BuzzFeed 's popular cooking brand, delivers both comforting and healthy weeknight dinners for meat-lovers, vegetarians, and vegans alike, plus treats like ice cream, chocolate desserts, and rainbow recipes galore. Now you can deliver on the promise of a great dish whenever the urge strikes. Get ready—your cooking is about to go viral. It is, above all, a way of asserting power. Winston Smith is a man in grave danger for the simple reason that his memory still functions. Drawn into a forbidden love affair, Winston finds the courage to join a secret revolutionary organization called The Brotherhood, dedicated to the destruction of the Party.
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