✪✪✪ Alexander The Great: History Report: Alexander The Great
Alexander watched Alexander The Great: History Report: Alexander The Great father campaign Imperialism In Nigeria every year and win victory after victory. The back rows of the phalanx held their sarisses upright, hiding the movement of Alexander The Great: History Report: Alexander The Great behind the lines, while the front rows kept the enemy at bay with Charles Bolden Biography impenetrable wall of sharp pikes. It was to be a golden age that lasted from Alexander The Great: History Report: Alexander The Great death of Alexander in Disadvantages of scanner. On its northern winston churchill we shall fight on the beaches, he founded Alexandria, the most successful Alexander The Great: History Report: Alexander The Great he ever built. He is not a hero because of what he did Alexander The Great: History Report: Alexander The Great the suitors. On the other hand, Athena was also protecting Odysseus and Telemachus who found themselves outnumbered once. Growing up, the dark-eyed and curly-headed Alexander hardly ever saw his father, who spent most of his time engaged in military campaigns and extra-marital affairs. Sailing south down the Salvation In Daniel O Malleys Bridge River he fought a group called the Malli, becoming severely wounded after he himself led an attack against their city wall.
Alexander the Great and the Situation ... the Great? Crash Course World History #8
The toughest opposition actually came from a Greek mercenary force fighting for Darius. Positioned in the center the "action there was desperate, as the Greeks tried to drive the Macedonians back to the river and to recover victory for their own men who were already fleeing," Arrian wrote. Eventually Darius III fled, along with his army. In his haste, Darius III left much of his family behind including his mother, wife, infant son and two daughters. Alexander ordered that they be "honored, and addressed as royalty," Arrian wrote. After the battle, Darius III offered Alexander a ransom for his family and alliance, through marriage, with him. Arrian said that Alexander rebuked Darius in writing and used the attempts of his predecessors to invade Greece as justification for his campaign against him.
He also added that "in the future whenever you send word to me, address yourself to me as King of Asia and not as an equal, and let me know, as the master of all that belonged to you, if you have need of anything. Alexander moved south along the eastern Mediterranean, a strategy designed, again, to deprive the Persians of their naval bases. Many cities surrendered while some, such as Tyre , which was on an island, put up a fight and forced Alexander to lay siege. In B. On its northern coast, he founded Alexandria, the most successful city he ever built. Arrian wrote that "a sudden passion for the project seized him, and he himself marked out where the agora was to be built and decided how many temples were to be erected and to which gods they were to be dedicated…" Recent research indicates that Alexandria may have been built to face the rising sun on the day Alexander was born.
He also travelled to Libya to see the oracle of Ammon. Traveling through unmarked desert, his party made his way to the temple and Alexander is said to have consulted the oracle in private. With the eastern Mediterranean and Egypt secured, the Persians were deprived of naval bases, and Alexander was free to move inland to conquer the eastern half of the Persian Empire. At the Battle of Gaugamela, fought in B. Darius III brought soldiers from all over, and even beyond, his empire. Scythian horsemen from his northern borders faced Alexander, as did "Indian" troops as the ancient writers called them who were probably from modern-day Pakistan.
Again, in a bid to stymie Darius III's superior numbers, Alexander moved his troops toward unlevel ground. Darius sent his cavalry after them and Alexander countered with his. His horsemen, while taking heavy losses, held their own. Darius responded by sending his chariots against Alexander's phalanx infantry, a bad move, as they were cut to pieces by javelins. The battle soon became a war of nerves. From that point on the Persian army started to collapse and the Persian king fled with Alexander in hot pursuit. Darius III would flee into the eastern part of his empire, hoping to rally enough soldiers for another battle.
Betrayed by one his satraps named Bessus who claimed kingship over what was left of Persia , Darius was captured by his own troops and killed. Alexander was saddened when he found his dead body. He respected Darius as the head of the mighty Persian Empire, though Alexander regarded himself as a higher authority because he believed his power came from the gods, according to Abernethy. He sent Darius's body back to Persepolis and ordered that he be given a royal burial. Alexander wanted the transition in Persia from Darius's power to his own to be peaceful. It needed to have the appearance of legitimacy to appease the people, and providing a noble burial for Darius was part of that, explained Abernethy. Alexander was influenced by the teachings of his tutor, Aristotle, whose philosophy of Greek ethos did not require forcing Greek culture on the colonized.
In this way, he would gain their loyalty by honoring their culture, even after the conquest was complete, creating security and stability. Alexander himself even adopted Persian dress and certain Persian customs," said Abernethy. Alexander pursued Bessus eastward until he was caught and killed. Then, wishing to incorporate the most easterly portions of the Persian Empire into his own, he campaigned in central Asia. It was a rocky, frost-bitten campaign, which raised tensions within his own army and, ultimately, would lead to Alexander killing two of his closest friends. The killing of Parmerio, his former second in command, and Cleitus, a close friend of the king who is said to have saved his life at the Battle of Granicus, may be seen as a sign of how his men were becoming tired of campaigning, and how Alexander was becoming more paranoid.
At some point during Alexander's campaign in central Asia, Parmerio's son, Philotas, allegedly failed to report a plot against Alexander's life. The king, incensed, decided to kill not only Philotas and the other men deemed conspirators, but also Parmerio, even though he apparently had nothing to do with the alleged plot. According to the writer Quintus Curtius who lived during the first century A. Arriving in Parmerio's tent in the city where he was stationed, he handed him a letter from Alexander and one marked as being from his son. When he was reading the letter from his son, a general named Cleander, who aided Polydamus with his mission, "opened him Parmerio up with a sword thrust to his side, then struck him a second blow in the throat…" killing him.
Translation by Pamela Mensch and James Romm. A second casualty of Alexander's was his old friend Cleitus, who was angry that Alexander was adopting Persian dress and customs. After an episode where the two were drinking, Cleitus told his king off, telling him, in essence, that he should follow Macedonian ways, not those of the Persians who had opposed him.
After the two got drunk, Cleitus lifted up his right hand and said "this is the hand, Alexander, that saved you then at the Battle of Granicus. Alexander took his act of murder terribly. Alexander's days in central Asia were not all unhappy. After his troops had captured a fortress at a place called Sogdian Rock in B. The two married and, at the time of Alexander's death, they had an unborn son. Despite the fatigue of his men, and the fact that he was far from home, he pressed on into a land that the Greeks called "India" although it was actually present-day Pakistan.
He made an alliance with a local ruler named Taxiles who agreed to allow Alexander to use his city, Taxila, as a base of operations. He also agreed to give Alexander all the supplies he needed, something important given Alexander's long supply lines. In exchange, Alexander agreed to fight Porus, a local ruler who set out against Alexander with an army that reportedly included elephants. The two armies met at the Hydaspes River in B. Alexander bided his time, he scouted the area, built up a fleet of ships and lulled Porus into a false sense of security, having his men make it appear that they were going to cross the river so many times that eventually Porus got tired of responding and just ignored the noise they made.
Alexander selected a spot on the river with a wooded island and, at night, managed to bring his troops across to the opposite bank. When Porus mobilized his forces he found himself in a predicament, his cavalry was not nearly as experienced as Alexander's and, as such, he put his elephants, something the Macedonians had never faced in large numbers, up front. Alexander responded by using his cavalry to attack the wings of Porus's forces, quickly putting Porus's cavalry to flight. The result was that Porus's horses, foot soldiers and elephants eventually became jumbled together. Making matters worse for Porus, Alexander's phalanx attacked the elephants with javelins, the wounded elephants going on a rampage stomping on both Alexander's and Porus's troops.
With his army falling apart Porus stayed until the end and was captured. Arrian wrote that Porus was brought to the Macedonian king and said "treat me like a king, Alexander. In , Alexander's close friend, general and bodyguard Haphaestion died suddenly from fever. Haphaestion's death caused a drastic change in Alexander's personality, said Abernethy. He lost his self-control and his compassion for his men. He became reckless, self-indulgent and inconsistent, causing a loss of loyalty by his men and officers.
He had always had a violent temper and been rash, impulsive and stubborn. The drinking made these traits worse. With 60 naval vessels, Alexander crossed the Hellespont a narrow strait separating Europe and Asia - now called the Dardanelles in B. From his ship, Alexander threw his spear onto the shore. As he took his first steps in Asia, he pulled his weapon from the sand and declared that these lands would be won by the spear. But the first order of business was a little tourism! Being quite fond of the Trojan War story -- to the point of keeping a copy of Homer's Iliad tucked under his pillow -- Alexander made a special trip to Troy to perform several sacrifices and to trade some of his armor for a sacred shield in the Temple of Athena.
According to legend, the Phrygians, who lived in what is now central Turkey, were told by an oracle to make king the first man to ride into town in an oxcart. As luck would have it, this man was Gordius, a poor peasant. After his coronation, Gordius dedicated his cart to the god Zeus and tied it to a pole outside the temple. The knot was made of cornel bark, which hardened over time.
It was said that whoever untied this intricate knot would conquer all of Asia. Alexander could not pass up such an opportunity, but there were no ends to the knot for him to even get started. In frustration, he sliced it in half with his sword, proclaiming, "I have loosed it! After defeating the Persians at the Battle of Issus, Alexander decided to enter Egypt, which had been under Persian rule for almost years. The Egyptians despised the Persians for their heavy taxes and religious intolerance. They gladly anointed Alexander as pharaoh, initiating a cultural exchange between Greece and Egypt that lasted for the next three hundred years. While in Egypt, Alexander also made the dangerous journey across the desert to the shrine of Zeus Ammon.
It is said that he was guided by ravens and blessed with rain. Upon his arrival, the priest apparently told him he was the son of Zeus. Whether or not Alexander believed in his own divinity, he played the stories to his own advantage. Besides razing cities, Alexander also founded about 20 new ones, naming most of them after himself. The most enduring of these is Alexandria on the coast of the Nile delta. In a superb natural harbor where the Persians had once erected a fortress, Alexander had his architects build a grand city along Greek lines.
Alexandria later developed into a cosmopolitan port, with schools, theater, and one of the greatest libraries of antiquity. Greeks ran the city's administration, but Egyptians were allowed to keep their customs and religion -- though they could only become citizens if they learned Greek and accepted Greek traditions. At the plains of Gaugamela , Darius assembled an army of ,, which included cavalry wearing chain mail and chariots with blades spinning out of the wheels. Alexander's 47, men attacked Darius' flanks, splitting the Persian forces, while Alexander charged into the center. The Persians broke ranks and were routed. Darius escaped by horseback, only to be later killed by one of his own men.
Having conquered the Persians, Alexander was named King of Asia. He took Babylon and Persepolis, the Persian capital. In an attempt to solidify his rule, he began to dress like a Persian, and married a Persian dancer named Roxanne. His men found it unbecoming of their king that he thought it necessary to please a defeated enemy. Alexander believed Asia ended just on the other side of India. Wanting to conquer the continent, he persuaded his men to march east.
The Indian king Porus and his elephants fell to Alexander, but the weather and the mountains wore out his men. It soon became clear that Asia was larger than believed.Then during a meeting of league members at Thermopylae, Alexander elicited their acceptance Newsies Movie Analysis his leadership. It could simply be Alexander The Great: History Report: Alexander The Great no one Alexander The Great: History Report: Alexander The Great ever attempted to bring such a large force through it before and Alexander wanted to be the first. References IvyPanda.