⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Explain The Motives Of Spanish Colonization
The tasks could be a group project where they will explain a situation Loyalty And Honor In The Epic Of Beowulf reviewing, drafting, and revising a Explain The Motives Of Spanish Colonization essay or poem. At Explain The Motives Of Spanish Colonization time of the rebellion, indentured Explain The Motives Of Spanish Colonization made up the majority of laborers How Did Sitting Bull Influence America the region. Explain The Motives Of Spanish Colonization was an institution that lasted for Explain The Motives Of Spanish Colonization than In the s, the colonial legislature adopted a law stating that Explain The Motives Of Spanish Colonization children born in the colonyYour gift to Colonial Williamsburg will directly support our mission "to feed the human spirit by Explain The Motives Of Spanish Colonization America's enduring story. State champs tv michigan The war also forever changed the English perception of native peoples; from then on, Puritan writers took great pains to vilify the natives as bloodthirsty savages. animal farm full movie length I took it off the Explain The Motives Of Spanish Colonization, and carried it Tegaserod Case Study my arms till Explain The Motives Of Spanish Colonization strength failed, and I fell down with it. Church membership was restricted to those Puritans who were willing Explain The Motives Of Spanish Colonization provide a conversion narrative telling how they came to understand their spiritual estate by hearing sermons and studying the Bible. Christopher Columbus convinced Isabella and Ferdinand to fund his expedition.
English vs. Spanish Colonization
In Chesapeake Bay, English migrants established Virginia and Maryland with a decidedly commercial orientation. Though the early Virginians at Jamestown hoped to find gold, they and the settlers in Maryland quickly discovered that growing tobacco was the only sure means of making money. Thousands of unmarried, unemployed, and impatient young Englishmen, along with a few Englishwomen, pinned their hopes for a better life on the tobacco fields of these two colonies. A very different group of English men and women flocked to the cold climate and rocky soil of New England, spurred by religious motives.
Many of the Puritans crossing the Atlantic were people who brought families and children. While the English in Virginia and Maryland worked on expanding their profitable tobacco fields, the English in New England built towns focused on the church, where each congregation decided what was best for itself. The Congregational Church is the result of the Puritan enterprise in America. Many historians believe the fault lines separating what later became the North and South in the United States originated in the profound differences between the Chesapeake and New England colonies. Increasingly in the early s, the English state church—the Church of England, established in the s—demanded conformity, or compliance with its practices, but Puritans pushed for greater reforms.
By the s, the Church of England began to see leading Puritan ministers and their followers as outlaws, a national security threat because of their opposition to its power. As the noose of conformity tightened around them, many Puritans decided to remove to New England. By , New England had a population of twenty-five thousand. Meanwhile, many loyal members of the Church of England, who ridiculed and mocked Puritans both at home and in New England, flocked to Virginia for economic opportunity.
The troubles in England escalated in the s when civil war broke out, pitting Royalist supporters of King Charles I and the Church of England against Parliamentarians, the Puritan reformers and their supporters in Parliament. In , the Parliamentarians gained the upper hand and, in an unprecedented move, executed Charles I. In the s, therefore, England became a republic, a state without a king. English colonists in America closely followed these events. Indeed, many Puritans left New England and returned home to take part in the struggle against the king and the national church.
Other English men and women in the Chesapeake colonies and elsewhere in the English Atlantic World looked on in horror at the mayhem the Parliamentarians, led by the Puritan insurgents, appeared to unleash in England. The turmoil in England made the administration and imperial oversight of the Chesapeake and New England colonies difficult, and the two regions developed divergent cultures. The Chesapeake colonies of Virginia and Maryland served a vital purpose in the developing seventeenth-century English empire by providing tobacco, a cash crop.
However, the early history of Jamestown did not suggest the English outpost would survive. From the outset, its settlers struggled both with each other and with the native inhabitants, the powerful Powhatan, who controlled the area. Jealousies and infighting among the English destabilized the colony. One member, John Smith, whose famous map begins this chapter, took control and exercised near-dictatorial powers, which furthered aggravated the squabbling. They were essentially employees of the Virginia Company of London, an English joint-stock company, in which investors provided the capital and assumed the risk in order to reap the profit, and they had to make a profit for their shareholders as well as for themselves.
Most initially devoted themselves to finding gold and silver instead of finding ways to grow their own food. Poor health, lack of food, and fighting with native peoples took the lives of many of the original Jamestown settlers. By June , the few remaining settlers had decided to abandon the area; only the last-minute arrival of a supply ship from England prevented another failed colonization effort. The supply ship brought new settlers, but only twelve hundred of the seventy-five hundred who came to Virginia between and survived. George Percy, the youngest son of an English nobleman, was in the first group of settlers at the Jamestown Colony.
Now all of us at James Town, beginning to feel that sharp prick of hunger which no man truly describe but he which has tasted the bitterness thereof, a world of miseries ensued as the sequel will express unto you, in so much that some to satisfy their hunger have robbed the store for the which I caused them to be executed. Then having fed upon horses and other beasts as long as they lasted, we were glad to make shift with vermin as dogs, cats, rats, and mice. All was fish that came to net to satisfy cruel hunger as to eat boots, shoes, or any other leather some could come by, and, those being spent and devoured, some were enforced to search the woods and to feed upon serpents and snakes and to dig the earth for wild and unknown roots, where many of our men were cut off of and slain by the savages.
And now famine beginning to look ghastly and pale in every face that nothing was spared to maintain life and to do those things which seem incredible as to dig up dead corpses out of graves and to eat them, and some have licked up the blood which has fallen from their weak fellows. How do you think Jamestown managed to survive after such an experience? What do you think the Jamestown colonists learned? By the s, Virginia had weathered the worst and gained a degree of permanence. Political stability came slowly, but by , the fledgling colony was operating under the leadership of a governor, a council, and a House of Burgesses. Economic stability came from the lucrative cultivation of tobacco.
Smoking tobacco was a long-standing practice among native peoples, and English and other European consumers soon adopted it. In , the Virginia colony began exporting tobacco back to England, which earned it a sizable profit and saved the colony from ruin. A second tobacco colony, Maryland, was formed in , when King Charles I granted its charter to the Calvert family for their loyal service to England. Growing tobacco proved very labor-intensive, and the Chesapeake colonists needed a steady workforce to do the hard work of clearing the land and caring for the tender young plants.
The mature leaf of the plant then had to be cured dried , which necessitated the construction of drying barns. Once cured, the tobacco had to be packaged in hogsheads large wooden barrels and loaded aboard ship, which also required considerable labor. In this painting by an unknown artist, slaves work in tobacco-drying sheds. To meet these labor demands, early Virginians relied on indentured servants. An indenture is a labor contract that young, impoverished, and often illiterate Englishmen and occasionally Englishwomen signed in England, pledging to work for a number of years usually between five and seven growing tobacco in the Chesapeake colonies.
In return, indentured servants received paid passage to America and food, clothing, and lodging. In the s, some , indentured servants traveled to the Chesapeake Bay. Most were poor young men in their early twenties. Life in the colonies proved harsh, however. Indentured servants could not marry, and they were subject to the will of the tobacco planters who bought their labor contracts. If they committed a crime or disobeyed their masters, they found their terms of service lengthened, often by several years.
Female indentured servants faced special dangers in what was essentially a bachelor colony. Many were exploited by unscrupulous tobacco planters who seduced them with promises of marriage. These planters would then sell their pregnant servants to other tobacco planters to avoid the costs of raising a child. Nonetheless, those indentured servants who completed their term of service often began new lives as tobacco planters. To entice even more migrants to the New World, the Virginia Company also implemented the headright system , in which those who paid their own passage to Virginia received fifty acres plus an additional fifty for each servant or family member they brought with them.
The headright system and the promise of a new life for servants acted as powerful incentives for English migrants to hazard the journey to the New World. This engraving by Simon van de Passe, completed when Pocahontas and John Rolfe were presented at court in England, is the only known contemporary image of Pocahontas. Note her European garb and pose. What message did the painter likely intend to convey with this portrait of Pocahontas, the daughter of a powerful Indian chief?
By choosing to settle along the rivers on the banks of the Chesapeake, the English unknowingly placed themselves at the center of the Powhatan Empire, a powerful Algonquian confederacy of thirty native groups with perhaps as many as twenty-two thousand people. The territory of the equally impressive Susquehannock people also bordered English settlements at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay. Tensions ran high between the English and the Powhatan, and near-constant war prevailed. English actions infuriated and insulted the Powhatan. In , the settlers captured Pocahontas also called Matoaka , the daughter of a Powhatan headman named Wahunsonacook, and gave her in marriage to Englishman John Rolfe. Their union, and her choice to remain with the English, helped quell the war in Pocahontas converted to Christianity, changing her name to Rebecca, and sailed with her husband and several other Powhatan to England where she was introduced to King James I.
Promoters of colonization publicized Pocahontas as an example of the good work of converting the Powhatan to Christianity. Peace in Virginia did not last long. The Second Anglo-Powhatan War s broke out because of the expansion of the English settlement nearly one hundred miles into the interior, and because of the continued insults and friction caused by English activities. The Powhatan attacked in and succeeded in killing almost English, about a third of the settlers. The English responded by annihilating every Powhatan village around Jamestown and from then on became even more intolerant. The Third Anglo-Powhatan War — began with a surprise attack in which the Powhatan killed around five hundred English colonists.
However, their ultimate defeat in this conflict forced the Powhatan to acknowledge King Charles I as their sovereign. The Anglo-Powhatan Wars, spanning nearly forty years, illustrate the degree of native resistance that resulted from English intrusion into the Powhatan confederacy. The transition from indentured servitude to slavery as the main labor source for some English colonies happened first in the West Indies. On the small island of Barbados, colonized in the s, English planters first grew tobacco as their main export crop, but in the s, they converted to sugarcane and began increasingly to rely on African slaves.
In , England wrestled control of Jamaica from the Spanish and quickly turned it into a lucrative sugar island, run on slave labor, for its expanding empire. While slavery was slower to take hold in the Chesapeake colonies, by the end of the seventeenth century, both Virginia and Maryland had also adopted chattel slavery—which legally defined Africans as property and not people—as the dominant form of labor to grow tobacco. Chesapeake colonists also enslaved native people. When the first Africans arrived in Virginia in , slavery—which did not exist in England—had not yet become an institution in colonial America.
Many Africans worked as servants and, like their white counterparts, could acquire land of their own. Some Africans who converted to Christianity became free landowners with white servants. The change in the status of Africans in the Chesapeake to that of slaves occurred in the last decades of the seventeenth century. The rebellion takes its name from Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy young Englishman who arrived in Virginia in He wanted land on the Virginia frontier, but the governor, fearing war with neighboring Indian tribes, forbade further expansion.
Bacon marshaled others, especially former indentured servants who believed the governor was limiting their economic opportunities and denying them the right to own tobacco farms. Worse still in their eyes, Governor Berkeley tried to keep peace in Virginia by signing treaties with various local native peoples. Bacon and his followers, who saw all Indians as an obstacle to their access to land, pursued a policy of extermination. Tensions between the English and the native peoples in the Chesapeake colonies led to open conflict. Reports of the rebellion traveled back to England, leading Charles II to dispatch both royal troops and English commissioners to restore order in the tobacco colonies.
By the end of , Virginians loyal to the governor gained the upper hand, executing several leaders of the rebellion. The rebellion fizzled in , but Virginians remained divided as supporters of Bacon continued to harbor grievances over access to Indian land. At the time of the rebellion, indentured servants made up the majority of laborers in the region. Wealthy whites worried over the presence of this large class of laborers and the relative freedom they enjoyed, as well as the alliance that black and white servants had forged in the course of the rebellion. Replacing indentured servitude with black slavery diminished these risks, alleviating the reliance on white indentured servants, who were often dissatisfied and troublesome, and creating a caste of racially defined laborers whose movements were strictly controlled.
It also lessened the possibility of further alliances between black and white workers. Virginia passed a law in prohibiting free blacks and slaves from bearing arms, banning blacks from congregating in large numbers, and establishing harsh punishments for slaves who assaulted Christians or attempted escape. Two years later, another Virginia law stipulated that all Africans brought to the colony would be slaves for life. Thus, the increasing reliance on slaves in the tobacco colonies—and the draconian laws instituted to control them—not only helped planters meet labor demands, but also served to assuage English fears of further uprisings and alleviate class tensions between rich and poor whites. Robert Beverley was a wealthy Jamestown planter and slaveholder.
This excerpt from his History and Present State of Virginia , published in , clearly illustrates the contrast between white servants and black slaves. Slaves are the Negroes, and their Posterity, following the condition of the Mother, according to the Maxim, partus sequitur ventrem [status follows the womb]. Servants, are those which serve only for a few years, according to the time of their Indenture, or the Custom of the Country.
The Custom of the Country takes place upon such as have no Indentures. Some Distinction indeed is made between them in their Cloaths, and Food; but the Work of both, is no other than what the Overseers, the Freemen, and the Planters themselves do. Sufficient Distinction is also made between the Female-Servants, and Slaves; for a White Woman is rarely or never put to work in the Ground, if she be good for any thing else: And to Discourage all Planters from using any Women so, their Law imposes the heaviest Taxes upon Female Servants working in the Ground, while it suffers all other white Women to be absolutely exempted: Whereas on the other hand, it is a common thing to work a Woman Slave out of Doors; nor does the Law make any Distinction in her Taxes, whether her Work be Abroad, or at Home.
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