✎✎✎ Imperialism In America Today

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Imperialism In America Today

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How did the English Colonize America?

The people seldom saw the emperor, yet they were to carry out his orders without question, in honor to him and to the unity of the Japanese people, which he represented. In fact, the emperor did not rule. It was his "advisers," the small group of men who exercised political control, that devised and carried out the reform program in the name of the emperor. The abolition of feudalism made possible tremendous social and political changes. Millions of people were suddenly free to choose their occupation and move about without restrictions. By providing a new environment of political and financial security, the government made possible investment in new industries and technologies. The government led the way in this, building railway and shipping lines, telegraph and telephone systems, three shipyards, ten mines, five munitions works, and fifty-three consumer industries making sugar, glass, textiles, cement, chemicals, and other important products.

This was very expensive, however, and strained government finances, so in the government decided to sell most of these industries to private investors, thereafter encouraging such activity through subsidies and other incentives. Some of the samurai and merchants who built these industries established major corporate conglomerates called zaibatsu, which controlled much of Japan's modern industrial sector. The government also introduced a national educational system and a constitution, creating an elected parliament called the Diet.

They did this to provide a good environment for national growth, win the respect of the Westerners, and build support for the modern state. In the Tokugawa period, popular education had spread rapidly, and in the government established a national system to educate the entire population. By the end of the Meiji period, almost everyone attended the free public schools for at least six years. The government closely controlled the schools, making sure that in addition to skills like mathematics and reading, all students studied "moral training," which stressed the importance of their duty to the emperor, the country and their families. The constitution was "given" to the people by the emperor, and only he or his advisers could change it.

A parliament was elected beginning in , but only the wealthiest one percent of the population could vote in elections. In this was changed to allow all men but not yet women to vote. To win the recognition of the Western powers and convince them to change the unequal treaties the Japanese had been forced to sign in the s, Japan changed its entire legal system, adopting a new criminal and civil code modeled after those of France and Germany. The Western nations finally agreed to revise the treaties in , acknowledging Japan as an equal in principle, although not in international power.

In Japan fought a war against China over its interest in Korea, which China claimed as a vassal state. The Korean peninsula is the closest part of Asia to Japan, less than miles by sea, and the Japanese were worried that the Russians might gain control of that weak nation. Japan won the war and gained control over Korea and gained Taiwan as a colony. Japan's sudden, decisive victory over China surprised the world and worried some European powers. At this time the European nations were beginning to claim special rights in China — the French, with their colony in Indochina today's Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia , were involved in South China; the British also claimed special rights in South China, near Hong Kong, and later the whole Yangtze valley; and the Russians, who were building a railway through Siberia and Manchuria, were interested in North China.

After Japan's victory over China, Japan signed a treaty with China which gave Japan special rights on China's Liaotung peninsula, in addition to the control of Taiwan. But Japan's victory was short lived. Within a week, France, Russia, and Germany combined to pressure Japan to give up rights on the Liaotung peninsula. Each of these nations then began to force China to give it ports, naval bases, and special economic rights, with Russia taking the same Liaotung peninsula that Japan had been forced to return. The Japanese government was angered by this incident and drew the lesson that for Japan to maintain its independence and receive equal treatment in international affairs, it was necessary to strengthen its military even further.

By , when the Russians were again threatening to establish control over Korea, Japan was much stronger. It declared war on Russia and, using all its strength, won victory in beginning with a surprise naval attack on Port Arthur, which gained for Japan the control of the China Sea. Japan thus achieved dominance over Korea and established itself a colonial power in East Asia. The Meiji reforms brought great changes both within Japan and in Japan's place in world affairs. Japan strengthened itself enough to remain a sovereign nation in the face of Western colonizing powers and indeed became a colonizing power itself. During this time, Japanese society and the Japanese political system were significantly more open than they were either before or after.

The Japanese people had more money to spend, more leisure, and better education, supplemented by the development of mass media. Increasingly they lived in cities where they came into contact with influences from abroad and where the traditional authority of the extended family was less influential. Industrialization in itself undermined traditional values, emphasizing instead efficiency, independence, materialism, and individualism. During these years Japan saw the emergence of a "mass society" very similar to the "Roaring 20s" in the United States. During these years also, the Japanese people began to demand universal manhood suffrage which they won in Political parties increased their influence, becoming powerful enough to appoint their own prime ministers between and At the end of World War I, however, Japan entered a severe economic depression.

Political party government was marred by corruption. The government and military, consequently, grew stronger, the parliament weaker. The advanced industrial sector became increasingly controlled by a few giant businesses, the zaibatsu. Moreover, Japan's international relations were disrupted by trade tensions and by growing international disapproval of Japan's activities in China. But success in competing with the European powers in East Asia strengthened the idea that Japan could, and should, further expand its influence on the Asian mainland by military force. Japan's need for natural resources and the repeated rebuffs from the West to Japan's attempts to expand its power in Asia paved the way for militarists to rise to power. Insecurity in international relations allowed a right-wing militaristic faction to control first foreign, then domestic, policy.

With the military greatly influencing the government, Japan began an aggressive military campaign throughout Asia, and then, in , bombed Pearl Harbor. The most important feature of the Meiji period was Japan's struggle for recognition of its considerable achievement and for equality with Western nations. Japan was highly successful in organizing an industrial, capitalist state on Western models. Later that action to benefit the poor was reversed. Banzer, who was trained at the U. Air Force Major Robert Lundin. In he staged a successful coup with the help of the U. Air Force radio system. In the first years of his dictatorship he received twice as military assistance from the U. A few years later the Catholic Church denounced an army massacre of striking tin workers in , Banzer, assisted by information provided by the CIA, was able to target and locate leftist priests and nuns.

His anti-clergy strategy, known as the Banzer Plan, was adopted by nine other Latin American dictatorships in Immense damage was done to the villages and cities of Cambodia, causing refugees and internal displacement of the population. This unstable situation enabled the Khmer Rouge, a small political party led by Pol Pot, to assume power. So the U. An estimated 40, people in Chad were killed and as many as , tortured by a government, headed by Hissen Habre who was brought to power in June, with the help of CIA money and arms.

He remained in power for eight years. Human Rights Watch claimed that Habre was responsible for thousands of killings. In , while living in Senegal, he was almost tried for crimes committed by him in Chad. However, a court there blocked these proceedings. So the result was that the law that allowed victims to file complaints in Belgium for atrocities committed abroad was repealed. However, two months later a new law was passed which made special provision for the continuation of the case against Habre.

In a socialist candidate, Salvador Allende, was elected president. This plot failed and Allende took office. What followed were guerilla warfare, arson, bombing, sabotage and terror. ITT and other U. Finally, on September 11, Allende died either by suicide or by assassination. At that time Henry Kissinger, U. One estimate is that 67, deaths have occurred from the s to recent years due to support by the U. According to a Amnesty International report, more than 20, people were killed for political reasons in Colombia since , mainly by the military and its paramilitary allies. In recent years the U. The Colombian government has been charged with using most of the funds for destruction of crops and support of the paramilitary group.

In the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba on April 18, which ended after 3 days, of the invading force were killed, 1, were taken prisoners and a few escaped to waiting U. Some people estimate that the number of Cuban forces killed range from 2,, to 4, Another estimate is that 1, Cuban forces were killed on an open highway by napalm. This appears to have been a precursor of the Highway of Death in Iraq in when U. The beginning of massive violence was instigated in this country in by its colonizer King Leopold of Belgium.

In the Congo became an independent state with Patrice Lumumba being its first prime minister. He was assassinated with the CIA being implicated, although some say that his murder was actually the responsibility of Belgium. This virus would have been able to produce a fatal disease indigenous to the Congo area of Africa and was transported in a diplomatic pouch. Much of the time in recent years there has been a civil war within the Democratic Republic of Congo, fomented often by the U. In April , Newsday reported that the CIA was secretly supporting efforts to recruit several hundred mercenaries in the U. In that same year the U. In May , the U.

State Department for human rights violations. There is an international battle over resources in that country with over companies and individuals being implicated. One of these substances is coltan, which is used in the manufacture of cell phones. In , Juan Bosch became president of the Dominican Republic. He advocated such programs as land reform and public works programs. This did not bode well for his future relationship with the U. President, we get another Bosch. The cover excuse for doing this was that this was done to protect foreigners there. In December , Indonesia invaded East Timor. This incursion was launched the day after U.

Daniel Moynihan, U. Sixteen years later, on November 12, , two hundred and seventeen East Timorese protesters in Dili, many of them children, marching from a memorial service, were gunned down by Indonesian Kopassus shock troops who were headed by U. Trucks were seen dumping bodies into the sea. This former member of the Salvadoran National Guard testified that he was a member of a squad of twelve who found people who they were told were guerillas and tortured them. Part of the training he received was in torture at a U. About villagers were massacred in the village of El Mozote in Ten of the twelve El Salvadoran government soldiers cited as participating in this act were graduates of the School of the Americas operated by the U. That commission linked graduates of the School of the Americas to many notorious killings.

In , the White House Oversight Board issued a report that supported many of the charges against that school made by Rev. Roy Bourgeois, head of the School of the Americas Watch. That same year the Pentagon released formerly classified reports indicating that graduates were trained in killing, extortion, and physical abuse for interrogations, false imprisonment and other methods of control. The CIA began to destabilize Grenada in after Maurice Bishop became president, partially because he refused to join the quarantine of Cuba. The campaign against him resulted in his overthrow and the invasion by the U.

In Jacobo Arbenz was elected president of Guatemala. He appropriated some unused land operated by the United Fruit Company and compensated the company. During the next 40 years various regimes killed thousands of people. The commission further reported that the U. According to the Commission between and the military government of Guatemala — financed and supported by the U. From to Haiti was ruled by Papa Doc Duvalier and later by his son. During that time their private terrorist force killed between 30, and , people. Reportedly, governments after the second Duvalier reign were responsible for an even larger number of fatalities, and the influence on Haiti by the U. The wealthy white class in Haiti opposed him in this predominantly black nation, because of his social programs designed to help the poor and end corruption.

He was forced by the U. In the s the CIA supported Battalion in Honduras, which kidnapped, tortured and killed hundreds of its citizens. Approximately people lost their lives. Battalion used shock and suffocation devices in interrogations in the s. Prisoners often were kept naked and, when no longer useful, killed and buried in unmarked graves. Declassified documents and other sources show that the CIA and the U.

Embassy knew of numerous crimes, including murder and torture, yet continued to support Battalion and collaborate with its leaders. Honduras was a staging ground in the early s for the Contras who were trying to overthrow the socialist Sandinista government in Nicaragua. John D. Negroponte denies having had any knowledge of these atrocities during his tenure. However, his predecessor in that position, Jack R. In Hungary, a Soviet satellite nation, revolted against the Soviet Union. During the uprising broadcasts by the U. Radio Free Europe into Hungary sometimes took on an aggressive tone, encouraging the rebels to believe that Western support was imminent, and even giving tactical advice on how to fight the Soviets.

Their hopes were raised then dashed by these broadcasts which cast an even darker shadow over the Hungarian tragedy. Robert Martens,a former officer in the U. Iran lost about , people in the war against Iraq from to On July 3, the U. Navy ship, the Vincennes, was operating withing Iranian waters providing military support for Iraq during the Iran-Iraq war. During a battle against Iranian gunboats it fired two missiles at an Iranian Airbus, which was on a routine civilian flight.

All civilian on board were killed. The Iraq-Iran War lasted from to and during that time there were about , Iraqi deaths according to the Washington Post. Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, and the U. Iraq had reason to believe that the U. So the green light was given, but it seemed to be more of a trap. As a part of the public relations strategy to energize the American public into supporting an attack against Iraq the daughter of the Kuwaiti ambassador to the U. On February 23 President H. Bush ordered the U. The invasion took place with much needless killing of Iraqi military personnel. Only about American military personnel died compared to about , Iraqis.

Some of the Iraqis were mercilessly killed on the Highway of Death and about tons of depleted uranium were left in that nation by the U. Other deaths later were from delayed deaths due to wounds, civilians killed, those killed by effects of damage of the Iraqi water treatment facilities and other aspects of its damaged infrastructure and by the sanctions. In the Food and Agriculture Organization of the U. N sanctions against on Iraq had been responsible for the deaths of more than , children since Ambassador to the U. And — and you know, is the price worth it? Richard Garfield later estimated that the more likely number of excess deaths among children under five years of age from through March to be , — double those of the previous decade.

Garfield estimated that the numbers to be , through based in part on result of another study. However, there are limitations to his study. His figures were not updated for the remaining three years of the sanctions. Also, two other somewhat vulnerable age groups were not studied: young children above the age of five and the elderly. All of these reports were considerable indicators of massive numbers of deaths which the U. Just as the end of the Cold War emboldened the U. While in some other wars we learned much later about the lies that were used to deceive us, some of the deceptions that were used to get us into this war became known almost as soon as they were uttered. There were no weapons of mass destruction, we were not trying to promote democracy, we were not trying to save the Iraqi people from a dictator.

The total number of Iraqi deaths that are a result of our current Iraq against Iraq War is ,, of which , are attributed to acts of violence, according to Johns Hopkins researchers. Since these deaths are a result of the U. About , to , Israelis and Palestinians, but mostly the latter, have been killed in the struggle between those two groups. However, since then another explanation has emerged which maintains that the attack by North Korea came during a time of many border incursions by both sides. South Korea initiated most of the border clashes with North Korea beginning in The North Korea government claimed that by the South Korean army committed 2, armed incursions. Four sources give deaths counts ranging from 1.

John H. Kim, a U. Army, Air Force and Navy were directly involved in the killing of about three million civilians — both South and North Koreans — at many locations throughout Korea…It is reported that the U. Another source states a total of about , who were Koreans and presumably only military. From to during the Vietnam War the U. Over a quarter of the population became refugees. Hundreds of thousands were killed.

Branfman make the only estimate that I am aware of , stating that hundreds of thousands died. This can be interpeted to mean that at least , died. A civil war started in the s when the U. Between 8, and 12, Nepalese have died since a civil war broke out in The death rate, according to Foreign Policy in Focus, sharply increased with the arrival of almost 8, American M submachine guns rpm and U. Nepal is 85 percent rural and badly in need of land reform. In , after another civil war erupted, President George W. The use of assassination manuals by the Contras surfaced in But when Congress discovered that the CIA had supervised acts of sabotage in Nicaragua without notifying Congress, it passed the Boland Amendment in which prohibited the CIA, Defense Department and any other government agency from providing any further covert military assistance.

But ways were found to get around this prohibition. The National Security Council, which was not explicitly covered by the law, raised private and foreign funds for the Contras. In addition, arms were sold to Iran and the proceeds were diverted from those sales to the Contras engaged in the insurgency against the Sandinista government. In West Pakistan, an authoritarian state supported by the U. The war ended after India, whose economy was staggering after admitting about 10 million refugees, invaded East Pakistan now Bangladesh and defeated the West Pakistani forces. Millions of people died during that brutal struggle, referred to by some as genocide committed by West Pakistan.

That country had long been an ally of the U. Pakistan during the war. Three sources estimate that 3 million people died and 5,2,6 one source estimates 1. In December, U. This was an example of the U. For a number of years before that he had worked for the CIA, but fell out of favor partially because he was not an opponent of the Sandinistas in Nicaragua. The Philippines were under the control of the U.

Most Spanish settlers came to the Indies Essay About Outliers permanent residents, established families and businesses, and sought advancement Imperialism In America Today the Imperialism In America Today system, such as membership of cabildos, so that Imperialism In America Today were in the Imperialism In America Today of local, American-born crillo The Manhattan Project: Zillard And Fermi. Radio Free Europe into Hungary sometimes took on an aggressive tone, encouraging the rebels to believe that Western support was imminent, Imperialism In America Today even Imperialism In America Today tactical advice on how this dead butcher and his fiend like queen fight the Soviets. Cultural imperialism can refer to either the forced acculturation of a subject population, or to the voluntary embracing of a foreign culture by individuals who do so Imperialism In America Today their own free will.

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