⌚ Announcing War Against Iraq Speech Analysis

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Announcing War Against Iraq Speech Analysis

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President George H.W. Bush Announces Persion Gulf War 1-16-91

In the invasion phase of the war 19 March — 30 April , an estimated 9, Iraqi combatants were killed by coalition forces along with an estimated 3, non-combatants, i. At sunset, he held his nationally televised "Mission Accomplished" speech , delivered before the sailors and airmen on the flight deck. Bush declared the end of major combat operations in Iraq, due to the defeat of Iraq's conventional forces, while maintaining that much still needed to be done. Nevertheless, Saddam Hussein remained at large, and significant pockets of resistance remained.

After Bush's speech, coalition forces noticed a flurry of attacks on its troops began to gradually increase in various regions, such as the " Sunni Triangle ". The three governorates with the highest number of attacks were Baghdad , Al Anbar , and Saladin. Insurgents used various guerrilla tactics , including mortars, missiles, suicide attacks , snipers , improvised explosive devices IEDs , car bombs, small arms fire usually with assault rifles , and RPGs rocket propelled grenades , as well as sabotage against the petroleum, water, and electrical infrastructures. Coalition efforts to establish post-invasion Iraq commenced after the fall of Saddam's regime.

The coalition nations, together with the United Nations, began to work to establish a stable, compliant democratic state capable of defending itself from non-coalition forces, as well as overcoming internal divisions. Meanwhile, coalition military forces launched several operations around the Tigris River peninsula and in the Sunni Triangle. A series of similar operations were launched throughout the summer in the Sunni Triangle. In late , the intensity and pace of insurgent attacks began to increase. A sharp surge in guerrilla attacks ushered in an insurgent effort that was termed the " Ramadan Offensive ", as it coincided with the beginning of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan.

To counter this offensive, coalition forces began to use airpower and artillery again for the first time since the end of the invasion, by striking suspected ambush sites and mortar launching positions. Surveillance of major routes, patrols, and raids on suspected insurgents was stepped up. In addition, two villages, including Saddam's birthplace of al-Auja and the small town of Abu Hishma , were surrounded by barbed wire and carefully monitored. Citing United Nations Security Council Resolution 22 May and the laws of war , the CPA vested itself with executive, legislative , and judicial authority over the Iraqi government from the period of the CPA's inception on 21 April until its dissolution on 28 June Paul Bremer.

On 16 May , his first day on the job, Paul Bremer issued Coalition Provisional Authority Order 1 to exclude from the new Iraqi government and administration members of the Baathist party. This policy, known as De-Ba'athification , eventually led to the removal of 85, to , Iraqi people from their jobs, [] including 40, school teachers who had joined the Baath Party simply to stay employed. US army general Ricardo Sanchez called the decision a "catastrophic failure". Slocombe , advocated changing the pre-war Bush policy to employ the former Iraq Army after hostilities on the ground ceased. Bush gave Bremer and Slocombe authority to change the pre-war policy. Slocombe announced the policy change in the Spring of The decision led to the alienation of hundreds of thousands of former armed Iraq soldiers, who subsequently aligned themselves with various occupation resistance movements all over Iraq.

In the week before the order to dissolve the Iraq Army, no coalition forces were killed by hostile action in Iraq; the week after, five US soldiers were killed. Then, on 18 June , coalition forces opened fire on former Iraq soldiers protesting in Baghdad who were throwing rocks at coalition forces. But it was too late; the former Iraq Army shifted their alliance from one that was ready and willing to work with the CPA to one of armed resistance against the CPA and the coalition forces.

Another group created by the multinational force in Iraq post-invasion was the 1,member international Iraq Survey Group , who conducted a fact-finding mission to find Iraq weapons of mass destruction WMD programs. In summer , the multinational forces focused on capturing the remaining leaders of the former government. In all, over top leaders of the former government were killed or captured, as well as numerous lesser functionaries and military personnel.

Intelligence on Saddam's whereabouts came from his family members and former bodyguards. With the capture of Saddam and a drop in the number of insurgent attacks, some concluded the multinational forces were prevailing in the fight against the insurgency. Oil revenue was also used for rebuilding schools and for work on the electrical and refining infrastructure. Shortly after the capture of Saddam, elements left out of the Coalition Provisional Authority began to agitate for elections and the formation of an Iraqi Interim Government. The Coalition Provisional Authority opposed allowing democratic elections at this time. The two most turbulent centers were the area around Fallujah and the poor Shia sections of cities from Baghdad Sadr City to Basra in the south.

The start of was marked by a relative lull in violence. Insurgent forces reorganised during this time, studying the multinational forces' tactics and planning a renewed offensive. However, violence did increase during the Iraq Spring Fighting of with foreign fighters from around the Middle East as well as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad , an al-Qaeda -linked group led by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi , helping to drive the insurgency. As the insurgency grew there was a distinct change in targeting from the coalition forces towards the new Iraqi Security Forces, as hundreds of Iraqi civilians and police were killed over the next few months in a series of massive bombings.

An organized Sunni insurgency, with deep roots and both nationalist and Islamist motivations, was becoming more powerful throughout Iraq. The Shia Mahdi Army also began launching attacks on coalition targets in an attempt to seize control from Iraqi security forces. The southern and central portions of Iraq were beginning to erupt in urban guerrilla combat as multinational forces attempted to keep control and prepared for a counteroffensive. The most serious fighting of the war so far began on 31 March , when Iraqi insurgents in Fallujah ambushed a Blackwater USA convoy led by four US private military contractors who were providing security for food caterers Eurest Support Services.

Subsequently, their bodies were dragged from their vehicles by local people, beaten, set ablaze, and their burned corpses hung over a bridge crossing the Euphrates. The offensive was resumed in November in the bloodiest battle of the war: the Second Battle of Fallujah , described by the US military as "the heaviest urban combat that they had been involved in since the Battle of Hue City in Vietnam. Fallujah was totally devastated during the fighting, though civilian casualties were low, as they had mostly fled before the battle.

Another major event of that year was the revelation of widespread prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib , which received international media attention in April First reports of the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse , as well as graphic pictures showing US military personnel taunting and abusing Iraqi prisoners, came to public attention from a 60 Minutes II news report 28 April and a Seymour M. Hersh article in The New Yorker posted online on 30 April. On 31 January, Iraqis elected the Iraqi Transitional Government in order to draft a permanent constitution. Although some violence and a widespread Sunni boycott marred the event, most of the eligible Kurd and Shia populace participated.

On 4 February, Paul Wolfowitz announced that 15, US troops whose tours of duty had been extended in order to provide election security would be pulled out of Iraq by the next month. The Battle of Abu Ghraib on 2 April was an attack on United States forces at Abu Ghraib prison, which consisted of heavy mortar and rocket fire, under which an estimated 80— armed insurgents attacked with grenades, small arms, and two vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices VBIED.

The US force's munitions ran so low that orders to fix bayonets were given in preparation for hand-to-hand fighting. It was considered to be the largest coordinated assault on a US base since the Vietnam War. Hopes for a quick end to the insurgency and a withdrawal of US troops were dashed in May, Iraq's bloodiest month since the invasion. Their targets were often Shia gatherings or civilian concentrations of Shias.

As a result, over Iraqi civilians died in that month, as well as 79 US soldiers. This led to fighting in the autumn in the small towns of the Euphrates valley between the capital and that border. A referendum was held on 15 October in which the new Iraqi constitution was ratified. Insurgent attacks increased in with 34, recorded incidents, compared to a total 26, for the previous year. The beginning of was marked by government creation talks, growing sectarian violence, and continuous anti-coalition attacks.

Sectarian violence expanded to a new level of intensity following the al-Askari Mosque bombing in the Iraqi city of Samarra, on 22 February The explosion at the mosque, one of the holiest sites in Shi'a Islam, is believed to have been caused by a bomb planted by al-Qaeda. Although no injuries occurred in the blast, the mosque was severely damaged and the bombing resulted in violence over the following days.

Over dead bodies with bullet holes were found on 23 February, and at least people are thought to have been killed. In the aftermath of this attack the US military calculated that the average homicide rate in Baghdad tripled from 11 to 33 deaths per day. In the UN described the environment in Iraq as a "civil war-like situation". The soldiers then set fire to the girl's body to conceal evidence of the crime. On 6 June , the United States was successful in tracking Abu Musab al-Zarqawi , the leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq who was killed in a targeted killing , while attending a meeting in an isolated safehouse approximately 8 km 5.

Six others—three male and three female individuals—were also reported killed. Among those killed were one of his wives and their child. The government of Iraq took office on 20 May , following approval by the members of the Iraqi National Assembly. This followed the general election in December The government succeeded the Iraqi Transitional Government, which had continued in office in a caretaker capacity until the formation of the permanent government.

Hamilton , a former US Representative Democrat. It concluded that "the situation in Iraq is grave and deteriorating" and "U. On 18 December, a Pentagon report found that insurgent attacks were averaging about attacks per week, the highest since the reports had begun in Coalition forces formally transferred control of a governorate to the Iraqi government, the first since the war. Military prosecutors charged eight US Marines with the murders of 24 Iraqi civilians in Haditha in November , 10 of them women and children.

Four officers were also charged with dereliction of duty in relation to the event. Saddam Hussein was hanged on 30 December , after being found guilty of crimes against humanity by an Iraqi court after a year-long trial. In his new position, Petraeus oversaw all coalition forces in Iraq and employed them in the new "Surge" strategy outlined by the Bush administration. On 10 May , Iraqi Parliamentary lawmakers signed onto a legislative petition calling on the United States to set a timetable for withdrawal. Pressures on US troops were compounded by the continuing withdrawal of coalition forces. In a speech made to Congress on 10 September , Petraeus "envisioned the withdrawal of roughly 30, US troops by next summer, beginning with a Marine contingent [in September].

The plan would take troop numbers back to their level before the surge at the beginning of An Iraqi military spokesman claimed that civilian deaths since the start of the troop surge plan were in Baghdad, down from 1, in the four previous weeks. The rate of US combat deaths in Baghdad nearly doubled to 3. Across the rest of Iraq it decreased slightly. On 14 August , the deadliest single attack of the whole war occurred. Nearly civilians were killed by a series of coordinated suicide bomb attacks on the northern Iraqi settlement of Kahtaniya. More than homes and shops were destroyed in the blasts. The targeted villagers belonged to the non-Muslim Yazidi ethnic minority. The attack may have represented the latest in a feud that erupted earlier that year when members of the Yazidi community stoned to death a teenage girl called Du'a Khalil Aswad accused of dating a Sunni Arab man and converting to Islam.

The killing of the girl was recorded on camera-mobiles and the video was uploaded onto the internet. The latter organisation claimed responsibility for the attack. There was a reported trend of decreasing US troop deaths after May , [] and violence against coalition troops had fallen to the "lowest levels since the first year of the American invasion". The GAO also stated that there was no discernible trend in sectarian violence. Entire neighborhoods in Baghdad were ethnically cleansed by Shia and Sunni militias and sectarian violence has broken out in every Iraqi city where there is a mixed population.

Instead, according to that view, the reduction of violence was due to newer covert techniques by US military and intelligence officials to find, target and kill insurgents, including working closely with former insurgents. Basra is the ninth governorate of Iraq's 18 governorates to be returned to local security forces' control since the beginning of the occupation. More than half of the members of Iraq's parliament rejected the continuing occupation of their country for the first time. It also calls for a timetable for troop withdrawal and a freeze on the size of foreign forces. In mid, the Coalition began a controversial program to recruit Iraqi Sunnis often former insurgents for the formation of "Guardian" militias.

These Guardian militias are intended to support and secure various Sunni neighborhoods against the Islamists. These tensions further increased with an alleged border incursion on 23 August by Iranian troops who attacked several Kurdish villages killing an unknown number of civilians and militants. Coalition forces also began to target alleged Iranian Quds force operatives in Iraq, either arresting or killing suspected members. The Bush administration and coalition leaders began to publicly state that Iran was supplying weapons, particularly EFP devices, to Iraqi insurgents and militias although to date have failed to provide any proof for these allegations.

Further sanctions on Iranian organizations were also announced by the Bush administration in the autumn of On 21 November , Lieutenant General James Dubik, who is in charge of training Iraqi security forces, praised Iran for its "contribution to the reduction of violence" in Iraq by upholding its pledge to stop the flow of weapons, explosives and training of extremists in Iraq. Border incursions by PKK militants based in Northern Iraq have continued to harass Turkish forces, with casualties on both sides. In the fall of , the Turkish military stated their right to cross the Iraqi Kurdistan border in "hot pursuit" of PKK militants and began shelling Kurdish areas in Iraq and attacking PKK bases in the Mount Cudi region with aircraft.

The latest series of attacks involved at least 50 aircraft and artillery and Kurdish officials reported one civilian killed and two wounded. Additionally, weapons that were given to Iraqi security forces by the US military were being recovered by authorities in Turkey after being used by PKK in that state. On 17 September , the Iraqi government announced that it was revoking the license of the US security firm Blackwater USA over the firm's involvement in the killing of eight civilians, including a woman and an infant, [] in a firefight that followed a car bomb explosion near a State Department motorcade.

Throughout , US officials and independent think tanks began to point to improvements in the security situation, as measured by key statistics. They also pointed out that the casualty figure for US forces in was against a figure of in According to the Brookings Institution , Iraqi civilian fatalities numbered in November as against 3, in January , whereas attacks against the coalition numbered somewhere between and per week in the latter half of , as opposed to a peak of nearly 1, in summer The number of Iraqi security forces killed was under per month in the second half of , from a high of to in summer Meanwhile, the proficiency of the Iraqi military increased as it launched a spring offensive against Shia militias, which Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki had previously been criticized for allowing to operate.

This began with a March operation against the Mehdi Army in Basra, which led to fighting in Shia areas up and down the country, especially in the Sadr City district of Baghdad. By October, the British officer in charge of Basra said that since the operation, the town had become "secure" and had a murder rate comparable to Manchester in England. Progress in Sunni areas continued after members of the Awakening movement were transferred from US military to Iraqi control.

Despite detaining thousands of individuals, the offensive failed to lead to major long-term security improvements in Mosul. At the end of the year, the city remained a major flashpoint. In the regional dimension, the ongoing conflict between Turkey and PKK [] [] [] intensified on 21 February, when Turkey launched a ground attack into the Quandeel Mountains of Northern Iraq. In the nine-day-long operation, around 10, Turkish troops advanced up to 25 km into Northern Iraq. This was the first substantial ground incursion by Turkish forces since Shortly after the incursion began, both the Iraqi cabinet and the Kurdistan regional government condemned Turkey's actions and called for the immediate withdrawal of Turkish troops from the region.

US military officials met these trends with cautious optimism as they approached what they described as the "transition" embodied in the US—Iraq Status of Forces Agreement , which was negotiated throughout Odierno , noted that "in military terms, transitions are the most dangerous time" in December At the end of March, the Iraqi Army, with Coalition air support, launched an offensive, dubbed "Charge of the Knights", in Basra to secure the area from militias.

This was the first major operation where the Iraqi Army did not have direct combat support from conventional coalition ground troops. The offensive was opposed by the Mahdi Army , one of the militias, which controlled much of the region. During the fighting Iraqi forces met stiff resistance from militiamen in Basra to the point that the Iraqi military offensive slowed to a crawl, with the high attrition rates finally forcing the Sadrists to the negotiating table.

By 12 May , Basra "residents overwhelmingly reported a substantial improvement in their everyday lives" according to The New York Times. In late April roadside bombings continued to rise from a low in January—from bombings to more than , surpassing the May high. Speaking before the Congress on 8 April , General David Petraeus urged delaying troop withdrawals, saying, "I've repeatedly noted that we haven't turned any corners, we haven't seen any lights at the end of the tunnel," referencing the comments of then President Bush and former Vietnam-era General William Westmoreland.

The pact was subject to possible negotiations which could have delayed withdrawal and a referendum scheduled for mid in Iraq, which might have required all US forces to completely leave by the middle of US contractors working for US forces were to be subject to Iraqi criminal law, while contractors working for the State Department and other US agencies may retain their immunity. Some Americans have discussed "loopholes" [] and some Iraqis have said they believe parts of the pact remain a "mystery". Several groups of Iraqis protested the passing of the SOFA accord [] [] [] as prolonging and legitimizing the occupation.

Tens of thousands of Iraqis burned an effigy of George W. Bush in a central Baghdad square where US troops five years previously organized a tearing down of a statue of Saddam Hussein. He said that Iraqi rule in the country is not complete while the occupiers are present, but that ultimately the Iraqi people would judge the pact in a referendum. A protester said that despite the approval of the Interim Security pact, the Iraqi people would break it in a referendum next year. On 1 January , the United States handed control of the Green Zone and Saddam Hussein's presidential palace to the Iraqi government in a ceremonial move described by the country's prime minister as a restoration of Iraq's sovereignty.

On 31 January, Iraq held provincial elections. Iraqi voter turnout failed to meet the original expectations which were set and was the lowest on record in Iraq, [] but US Ambassador Ryan Crocker characterized the turnout as "large". A "transitional force" of up to 50, troops tasked with training the Iraqi Security Forces , conducting counterterrorism operations, and providing general support may remain until the end of , the president added. However, the insurgency in and the rise of ISIL in caused the war to continue. On 9 April, the 6th anniversary of Baghdad's fall to coalition forces, tens of thousands of Iraqis thronged Baghdad to mark the anniversary and demand the immediate departure of coalition forces.

The crowds of Iraqis stretched from the Sadr City slum in northeast Baghdad to the square around 5 km 3. Police said many Sunnis, including prominent leaders such as a founding sheikh from the Sons of Iraq , took part. On 30 April, the United Kingdom formally ended combat operations. The withdrawal of US forces began at the end of June, with 38 bases to be handed over to Iraqi forces. On 29 June , US forces withdrew from Baghdad. On 30 November , Iraqi Interior Ministry officials reported that the civilian death toll in Iraq fell to its lowest level in November since the invasion. On 28 July, Australia withdrew its combat forces as the Australian military presence in Iraq ended, per an agreement with the Iraqi government.

On 30 June and 11 December , the Iraqi ministry of oil awarded contracts to international oil companies for some of Iraq's many oil fields. After the lengthy exchange of fire and bombing of the house, the Iraqi troops stormed inside and found two women still alive, one of whom was al-Masri's wife, and four dead men, identified as al-Masri, Abu Abdullah al-Rashid al-Baghdadi , an assistant to al-Masri, and al-Baghdadi's son. A suicide vest was indeed found on al-Masri's corpse, as the Iraqi Army subsequently stated.

US forces commander Gen. Raymond Odierno praised the operation. On 20 June, Iraq's Central Bank was bombed in an attack that left 15 people dead and brought much of downtown Baghdad to a standstill. The attack was claimed to have been carried out by the Islamic State of Iraq. This attack was followed by another attack on Iraq's Bank of Trade building that killed 26 and wounded 52 people. In late August , insurgents conducted a major attack with at least 12 car bombs simultaneously detonating from Mosul to Basra and killing at least These attacks coincided with the US plans for a withdrawal of combat troops.

From the end of August , the United States attempted to dramatically cut its combat role in Iraq, with the withdrawal of all US ground forces designated for active combat operations. The last US combat brigades departed Iraq in the early morning of 19 August. While all combat brigades left the country, an additional 50, personnel including Advise and Assist Brigades remained in the country to provide support for the Iraqi military. The desire to step back from an active counter-insurgency role did not however mean that the Advise and Assist Brigades and other remaining US forces would not be caught up in combat.

A standards memo from the Associated Press reiterated "combat in Iraq is not over, and we should not uncritically repeat suggestions that it is, even if they come from senior officials". State Department spokesman P. Crowley stated " In his address, he covered the role of the United States' soft power, the effect the war had on the United States economy, and the legacy of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. On the same day in Iraq, at a ceremony at one of Saddam Hussein 's former residences at Al Faw Palace in Baghdad, a number of US dignitaries spoke in a ceremony for television cameras, avoiding overtones of the triumphalism present in US announcements made earlier in the war.

Vice President Joe Biden expressed concerns regarding the ongoing lack of progress in forming a new Iraqi government, saying of the Iraqi people that "they expect a government that reflects the results of the votes they cast". Ray Odierno stated that the new era "in no way signals the end of our commitment to the people of Iraq". Speaking in Ramadi earlier in the day, Gates said that US forces "have accomplished something really quite extraordinary here, [but] how it all weighs in the balance over time I think remains to be seen". When asked by reporters if the seven-year war was worth doing, Gates commented that "It really requires a historian's perspective in terms of what happens here in the long run". He noted the Iraq War "will always be clouded by how it began" regarding Saddam Hussein's supposed weapons of mass destruction , which were never confirmed to have existed.

Gates continued, "This is one of the reasons that this war remains so controversial at home". On 7 September, two US troops were killed and nine wounded in an incident at an Iraqi military base. The incident is under investigation by Iraqi and US forces, but it is believed that an Iraqi soldier opened fire on US forces. It was announced that the unit would assume responsibilities in five southern governorates. According to reports from Iraq, hundreds of members of the Sunni Awakening Councils may have switched allegiance back to the Iraqi insurgency or al-Qaeda.

Responsibility for the attack was claimed by the Islamic State in Iraq organization. Coordinated attacks in primarily Shia areas struck throughout Baghdad on 2 November, killing approximately and wounding with around 17 bombs. As US forces departed the country, the Iraq Defense Ministry solidified plans to purchase advanced military equipment from the United States. Delivery was completed in These included allowing Iraq to have a civilian nuclear program, permitting the participation of Iraq in international nuclear and chemical weapons treaties, as well as returning control of Iraq's oil and gas revenue to the government and ending the Oil-for-Food Programme.

Muqtada al-Sadr returned to Iraq in the holy city of Najaf to lead the Sadrist movement after being in exile since On 15 January , three US troops were killed in Iraq. One of the troops was killed on a military operation in central Iraq, while the other two troops were deliberately shot by one or two Iraqi soldiers during a training exercise. On 26 June , a US soldier was killed. It was speculated that the militant group responsible for the attack was the same one which attacked JSS Loyalty just over three weeks before.

Nathan R. Beyers, 24, and Spc. Nicholas W. Newby, 20, were killed in the attack, Staff Sgt. Jazon Rzepa, 30, was seriously injured. In September, Iraq signed a contract to buy 18 Lockheed Martin F warplanes, becoming the 26th nation to operate the F Because of windfall profits from oil, the Iraqi government is planning to double this originally planned 18, to 36 Fs.

Iraq is relying on the US military for air support as it rebuilds its forces and battles a stubborn Islamist insurgency. With the collapse of the discussions about extending the stay of any US troops beyond , where they would not be granted any immunity from the Iraqi government, on 21 October , President Obama announced at a White House press conference that all remaining US troops and trainers would leave Iraq by the end of the year as previously scheduled, bringing the US mission in Iraq to an end. David Hickman, was killed by a roadside bomb in Baghdad on 14 November. In November , the US Senate voted down a resolution to formally end the war by bringing its authorization by Congress to an end.

The last US troops withdrew from Iraq on 18 December , although the US embassy and consulates continue to maintain a staff of more than 20, including US Marine Embassy Guards and between 4, and 5, private military contractors. He has been accused of involvement in assassinations and fled to the Kurdish part of Iraq. The invasion and occupation led to sectarian violence, which caused widespread displacement among Iraqi civilians. The Iraqi Red Crescent organization estimated the total internal displacement was around 2. Poverty led many Iraqi women to turn to prostitution to support themselves and their families, attracting sex tourists from the region. The invasion led to a constitution, which supported democracy as long as laws did not violate traditional Islamic principles, and the first parliamentary elections were held in In addition, the invasion preserved the autonomy of the Kurdish region, and stability brought new economic prosperity to Iraq.

Because the Kurdish region is historically the most democratic area of Iraq, many Iraqi refugees from other territories fled here. Sectarian violence continued in the first half of At least 56 people died in April when a Sunni protest in Hawija was interrupted by a government-supported helicopter raid and a series of violent incidents occurred in May. On 20 May , at least 95 people died in a wave of car bomb attacks that was preceded by a car bombing on 15 May that led to 33 deaths; also, on 18 May 76 people were killed in the Sunni areas of Baghdad.

Some experts have stated that Iraq could return to the brutal sectarian conflict of On 22 July , at least five hundred convicts, most of whom were senior members of al-Qaida who had received death sentences, were freed from Abu Ghraib jail in an insurgent attack, which began with a suicide bomb attack on the prison gates. Jeffrey, the United States ambassador in Baghdad when the last American troops exited, said the assault and resulting escape "will provide seasoned leadership and a morale boost to Al Qaeda and its allies in both Iraq and Syria By mid Iraq was in chaos with a new government yet to be formed following national elections, and the insurgency reaching new heights.

The al-Qaida breakaway group formally declared the creation of an Islamic state on 29 June , in the territory under its control. Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki unsuccessfully asked his parliament to declare a state of emergency that would give him increased powers. This paved the way for Haidar al-Abadi to take over on 19 August A civil war between ISIL and the central government continued for the next three years. This was greatly a result of the defeat of ISIL forces and the subsequent calming-down of the insurgency.

In January , the Iraqi parliament voted for all foreign troops to leave the country. This would end its standing agreement with the United States to station 5, soldiers in Iraq. Then President Trump objected to withdrawing troops and threatened Iraq with sanctions over this decision. For coalition death totals see the infobox at the top right. See also Casualties of the Iraq War , which has casualty numbers for coalition nations, contractors, non-Iraqi civilians, journalists, media helpers, aid workers, and the wounded. Casualty figures, especially Iraqi ones, are highly disputed.

There have been several attempts by the media, coalition governments and others to estimate the Iraqi casualties. The table below summarizes some of these estimates and methods. The Bush administration's rationale for the Iraq War has faced heavy criticism from an array of popular and official sources both inside and outside the United States, with many US citizens finding many parallels with the Vietnam War.

Both proponents and opponents of the invasion have also criticized the prosecution of the war effort along with a number of other lines. Most significantly, critics have assailed the United States and its allies for not devoting enough troops to the mission, not adequately planning for post-invasion Iraq , and for permitting and perpetrating human rights abuses. As the war has progressed, critics have also railed against the high human and financial costs. In , the United Kingdom published the Iraq Inquiry , a public inquiry which was broadly critical of the actions of the British government and military in making the case for the war, in tactics and in planning for the aftermath of the war. The upper ranges of these estimates include long-term veterans costs and economic impacts.

For example, Harvard's public finance expert Linda J. An inspector general's report mentioned that "'Severe inefficiencies and poor management' by the Coalition Provisional Authority would leave no guarantee that the money was properly used", said Stuart W. Bowen, Jr. A cholera outbreak in northern Iraq was thought to be the result of poor water quality. The Foreign Policy Association reported that "Perhaps the most perplexing component of the Iraq refugee crisis To date, the United States has granted around 84, Iraqis refugee status, of the more than two million global Iraqi refugees.

Throughout the entire Iraq War, there have been human rights abuses on all sides of the conflict. The post-invasion Iraqi government used torture against detainees, including children. Some techniques of torture used included beatings, electric shocks, prolonged hanging by the wrists, food and water deprivation, and blindfolding for multiple days. In it was found that majorities in the UK and Canada believed that the war in Iraq was "unjustified" and — in the UK — were critical of their government's support of US policies in Iraq. Directly after the invasion, polling suggested that a slight majority supported the US invasion.

Bush consistently referred to the Iraq War as "the central front in the War on Terror ", and argued that if the United States pulled out of Iraq, "terrorists will follow us here". In particular, a consensus developed among intelligence experts that the Iraq War actually increased terrorism. Counterterrorism expert Rohan Gunaratna frequently referred to the invasion of Iraq as a "fatal mistake".

London's International Institute for Strategic Studies concluded in that the occupation of Iraq had become "a potent global recruitment pretext" for Mujahideen and that the invasion "galvanised" al-Qaeda and "perversely inspired insurgent violence" there. There is even, under the best scenario, over time, the likelihood that some of the jihadists who are not killed there will, in a sense, go home, wherever home is, and will, therefore, disperse to various other countries. According to studies, most of the suicide bombers in Iraq are foreigners, especially Saudis. According to two unnamed US officials, the Pentagon is examining the possibility that the Karbala provincial headquarters raid , in which insurgents managed to infiltrate an American base, kill five US soldiers, wound three, and destroy three humvees before fleeing, was supported by Iranians.

In a speech on 31 January , Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki stated that Iran was supporting attacks against Coalition forces in Iraq [] and some Iraqis suspect that the raid may have been perpetrated by the Quds Force in retaliation for the detention of five Iranian officials by US forces in the northern Iraqi city of Irbil on 11 January. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the war that lasted from to Some were captured, while many were killed.

They were successful in defeating the Iranian breakthroughs, but suffered heavy losses. The 9th Armoured Division in particular had to be disbanded, and was never reformed. The total casualty toll had grown to include 80, soldiers and civilians. After Iran's failure in Operation Ramadan, they carried out only a few smaller attacks. Iran launched two limited offensives aimed at reclaiming the Sumar Hills and isolating the Iraqi pocket at Naft shahr at the international border, both of which were part of the disputed territories still under Iraqi occupation. They then aimed to capture the Iraqi border town of Mandali. They nearly breached the Iraqi lines but failed to capture Mandali after the Iraqis sent reinforcements, including brand new T tanks, which possessed armour that could not be pierced from the front by Iranian TOW missiles.

After the failure of the summer offensives, Iran believed that a major effort along the entire breadth of the front would yield victory. During the course of , the Iranians launched five major assaults along the front, though none achieved substantial success, as the Iranians staged more massive "human wave" attacks. Iraqi air campaigns met little opposition, striking over half of Iran, as the Iraqis were able to gain air superiority towards the end of the war. In Operation Before the Dawn , launched 6 February , the Iranians shifted focus from the southern to the central and northern sectors.

Employing , "last reserve" Revolutionary Guard troops, Iran attacked along a 40 km 25 mi stretch near al-Amarah, Iraq , about km mi southeast of Baghdad, in an attempt to reach the highways connecting northern and southern Iraq. The attack was stalled by 60 km 37 mi of hilly escarpments, forests, and river torrents blanketing the way to al-Amarah, but the Iraqis could not force the Iranians back. Iran directed artillery on Basra, Al Amarah, and Mandali. The Iranians suffered a large number of casualties clearing minefields and breaching Iraqi anti-tank mines , which Iraqi engineers were unable to replace.

After this battle, Iran reduced its use of human wave attacks, though they still remained a key tactic as the war went on. Further Iranian attacks were mounted in the Mandali—Baghdad north-central sector in April , but were repelled by Iraqi mechanised and infantry divisions. Casualties were high, and by the end of , an estimated , Iranians and 60, Iraqis had been killed. Iran, however, held the advantage in the war of attrition ; in , Iran had an estimated population of From early —, Iran launched a series of four Valfajr Dawn Operations that eventually numbered to During Operation Dawn-1 , in early February , 50, Iranian forces attacked westward from Dezful and were confronted by 55, Iraqi forces. The Iranian objective was to cut off the road from Basra to Baghdad in the central sector.

The Iraqis carried out air sorties against the Iranians, and even bombed Dezful, Ahvaz, and Khorramshahr in retribution. The Iraqi counterattack was broken up by Iran's 92nd Armoured Division. During Operation Dawn-2 , the Iranians directed insurgency operations by proxy in April by supporting the Kurds in the north. With Kurdish support, the Iranians attacked on 23 July , capturing the Iraqi town of Haj Omran and maintaining it against an Iraqi poison gas counteroffensive.

Iran saw an opportunity to sweep away Iraqi forces controlling the roads between the Iranian mountain border towns of Mehran, Dehloran and Elam. Iraq launched airstrikes, and equipped attack helicopters with chemical warheads ; while ineffective, it demonstrated both the Iraqi general staff's and Saddam's increasing interest in using chemical weapons. In the end, 17, had been killed on both sides, [ clarification needed ] with no gain for either country.

Iran's strategy was to press Kurdish tribes to occupy the Banjuin Valley, which was within 45 km 28 mi of Suleimaniyah and km 87 mi from the oilfields of Kirkuk. To stem the tide, Iraq deployed Mi-8 attack helicopters equipped with chemical weapons and executed sorties against the Iranian force, which stopped them 15 km 9. Iran's use of artillery against Basra while the battles in the north raged created multiple fronts, which effectively confused and wore down Iraq. Previously, the Iranians had outnumbered the Iraqis on the battlefield, but Iraq expanded their military draft pursuing a policy of total war , and by , the armies were equal in size.

By , Iraq had twice as many soldiers as Iran. By , Iraq would have 1 million soldiers, giving it the fourth largest army in the world. Some of their equipment, such as tanks, outnumbered the Iranians' by at least five to one. Iranian commanders, however, remained more tactically skilled. After the Dawn Operations, Iran attempted to change tactics. In the face of increasing Iraqi defense in depth, as well as increased armaments and manpower, Iran could no longer rely on simple human wave attacks.

Iran launched frequent, and sometimes smaller offensives to slowly gain ground and deplete the Iraqis through attrition. The Army and Revolutionary Guards worked together better as their tactics improved. Iran began training troops in infiltration, patrolling, night-fighting, marsh warfare, and mountain warfare. Iran used speedboats to cross the marshes and rivers in southern Iraq and landed troops on the opposing banks, where they would dig and set up pontoon bridges across the rivers and wetlands to allow heavy troops and supplies to cross. Iran also learned to integrate foreign guerrilla units as part of their military operations. By , the Iranian ground forces were reorganised well enough for the Revolutionary Guard to start Operation Kheibar , [] [] which lasted from 24 February to 19 March.

The marshes negated Iraqi advantage in armor, and absorbed artillery rounds and bombs. Iran launched two preliminary attacks prior to the main offensive, Operation Dawn 5 and Dawn 6. Iranian troops crossed the river on motorboats in a surprise attack, though only came within 24 km 15 mi of the highway. Operation Kheibar began on 24 February with Iranian infantrymen crossing the Hawizeh Marshes using motorboats and transport helicopters in an amphibious assault. On that day, a massive array of Iranian helicopters transporting Pasdaran troops were intercepted by Iraqi combat aircraft MiGs , Mirages and Sukhois. In what was essentially an aerial slaughter, Iraqi jets shot down 49 of the 50 Iranian helicopters.

Iraq ran live electrical cables through the water, electrocuting numerous Iranian troops and then displaying their corpses on state television. By 29 February, the Iranians had reached the outskirts of Qurna and were closing in on the Baghdad—Basra highway. The Iranians retreated back to the marshes, though they still held onto them along with Majnoon Island. The Battle of the Marshes saw an Iraqi defence that had been under continuous strain since 15 February; they were relieved by their use of chemical weapons and defence-in-depth , where they layered defensive lines: even if the Iranians broke through the first line, they were usually unable to break through the second due to exhaustion and heavy losses.

Four years into the war, the human cost to Iran had been , combat fatalities and , wounded. Iraqi combat fatalities were estimated at 80, with , wounded. Unable to launch successful ground attacks against Iran, Iraq used their now expanded air force to carry out strategic bombing against Iranian shipping, economic targets, and cities in order to damage Iran's economy and morale. The so-called "Tanker War" started when Iraq attacked the oil terminal and oil tankers at Kharg Island in early Iraq declared that all ships going to or from Iranian ports in the northern zone of the Persian Gulf were subject to attack.

Iraq repeatedly bombed Iran's main oil export facility on Kharg Island, causing increasingly heavy damage. As a first response to these attacks, Iran attacked a Kuwaiti tanker carrying Iraqi oil near Bahrain on 13 May , as well as a Saudi tanker in Saudi waters on 16 May. Because Iraq had become landlocked during the course of the war, they had to rely on their Arab allies, primarily Kuwait, to transport their oil. Iran attacked tankers carrying Iraqi oil from Kuwait, later attacking tankers from any Persian Gulf state supporting Iraq. Attacks on ships of noncombatant nations in the Persian Gulf sharply increased thereafter, with both nations attacking oil tankers and merchant ships of neutral nations in an effort to deprive their opponent of trade.

The air and small-boat attacks, however, did little damage to Persian Gulf state economies, and Iran moved its shipping port to Larak Island in the Strait of Hormuz. The Iranian Navy imposed a naval blockade of Iraq, using its British-built frigates to stop and inspect any ships thought to be trading with Iraq. They operated with virtual impunity, as Iraqi pilots had little training in hitting naval targets. Some Iranian warships attacked tankers with ship-to-ship missiles, while others used their radars to guide land-based anti-ship missiles to their targets. These speedboats would launch surprise attacks against tankers and cause substantial damage. Iran also used F-4 Phantoms II and helicopters to launch Maverick missiles and unguided rockets at tankers.

Lloyd's of London , a British insurance market, estimated that the Tanker War damaged commercial vessels and killed about civilian sailors. The largest portion of the attacks was directed by Iraq against vessels in Iranian waters, with the Iraqis launching three times as many attacks as the Iranians. The Soviet Union agreed to charter tankers starting in , and the United States Navy offered to provide protection for foreign tankers reflagged and flying the U. Iran accused the United States of helping Iraq. During the course of the war, Iran attacked two Soviet merchant ships. Seawise Giant , the largest ship ever built, was struck by Iraqi Exocet missiles as it was carrying Iranian crude oil out of the Persian Gulf.

Meanwhile, Iraq's air force also began carrying out strategic bombing raids against Iranian cities. While Iraq had launched numerous attacks with aircraft and missiles against border cities from the beginning of the war and sporadic raids on Iran's main cities, this was the first systematic strategic bombing that Iraq carried out during the war. This would become known as the "War of the Cities". Iraq used Tu Blinder and Tu Badger strategic bombers to carry out long-range high-speed raids on Iranian cities, including Tehran. Fighter-bombers such as the Mig Foxbat and Su Fitter were used against smaller or shorter range targets, as well as escorting the strategic bombers.

In response, the Iranians deployed their F-4 Phantoms to combat the Iraqis, and eventually they deployed Fs as well. Most of the Iraqi air raids were intercepted by the Iranian fighter jets and air defense, [ citation needed ] but some also successfully hit their targets, becoming a major headache for Iran. By , Iran also expanded their air defense network heavily to relieve the pressure on the air force. By later in the war, Iraqi raids primarily consisted of indiscriminate missile attacks [ citation needed ] while air attacks were used only on fewer, more important targets. Iran also launched several retaliatory air raids on Iraq, while primarily shelling border cities such as Basra. Iran also bought some Scud missiles from Libya , and launched them against Baghdad.

These too inflicted damage upon Iraq. On 7 February , during the first war of the cities, Saddam ordered his air force to attack eleven Iranian cities; [84] bombardments ceased on 22 February Though Saddam intended the attacks to demoralise Iran and force them to negotiate, they had little effect, and Iran quickly repaired the damage. The attacks resulted in tens of thousands of civilian casualties on both sides, and became known as the first "war of the cities". It was estimated that 1, Iranian civilians were killed during the raids in February alone. While interior cities such as Tehran, Tabriz , Qom , Isfahan and Shiraz received numerous raids, the cities of western Iran suffered the most.

By , Iran's losses were estimated to be , soldiers, while Iraq's losses were estimated to be , Both sides also abandoned equipment in the battlefield because their technicians were unable to carry out repairs. Iran and Iraq showed little internal coordination on the battlefield, and in many cases units were left to fight on their own. As a result, by the end of , the war was a stalemate. By , Iraqi armed forces were receiving financial support from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other Persian Gulf states, and were making substantial arms purchases from the Soviet Union, China, and France.

For the first time since early , Saddam launched new offensives. On 6 January , the Iraqis launched an offensive attempting to retake Majnoon Island. However, they were quickly bogged down into a stalemate against , Iranian infantrymen, reinforced by amphibious divisions. Iraq also carried out another "war of the cities" between 12 and 14 March, hitting up to targets in over 30 towns and cities, including Tehran. Iran responded by launching 14 Scud missiles for the first time, purchased from Libya. More Iraqi air attacks were carried out in August, resulting in hundreds of additional civilian casualties.

Iraqi attacks against both Iranian and neutral oil tankers in Iranian waters continued, with Iraq carrying out airstrikes using French bought Super Etendard and Mirage F-1 jets as well as Super Frelon helicopters, armed with Exocet missiles. The Iraqis attacked again on 28 January ; they were defeated, and the Iranians retaliated on 11 March with a major offensive directed against the Baghdad-Basra highway one of the few major offensives conducted in , codenamed Operation Badr after the Battle of Badr , Muhammad's first military victory in Mecca.

It is our belief that Saddam wishes to return Islam to blasphemy and polytheism The issue is one of Islam versus blasphemy, and not of Iran versus Iraq. This operation was similar to Operation Kheibar, though it invoked more planning. Iran used , troops, with 60, more in reserve. They assessed the marshy terrain, plotted points where they could land tanks, and constructed pontoon bridges across the marshes.

The Basij forces were also equipped with anti-tank weapons. The ferocity of the Iranian offensive broke through the Iraqi lines. The Revolutionary Guard, with the support of tanks and artillery, broke through north of Qurna on 14 March. That same night 3, Iranian troops reached and crossed the Tigris River using pontoon bridges and captured part of the Baghdad—Basra Highway 6 , which they had failed to achieve in Operations Dawn 5 and 6. Saddam responded by launching chemical attacks against the Iranian positions along the highway and by initiating the aforementioned second "war of the cities", with an air and missile campaign against twenty to thirty Iranian population centres, including Tehran.

They then launched a pincer attack using mechanized infantry and heavy artillery. The Iranians retreated back to the Hoveyzeh marshes while being attacked by helicopters, [81] and the highway was recaptured by the Iraqis. Operation Badr resulted in 10,—12, Iraqi casualties and 15, Iranian ones. The failure of the human wave attacks in earlier years had prompted Iran to develop a better working relationship between the Army and the Revolutionary Guard [84] and to mould the Revolutionary Guard units into a more conventional fighting force. To combat Iraq's use of chemical weapons, Iran began producing an antidote.

They were primarily used in observation, being used for up to sorties. For the rest of , and until the spring of , the Iranian Air Force's efficiency in air defence increased, with weapons being repaired or replaced and new tactical methods being used. The Iraqi Air Force reacted by increasing the sophistication of its equipment, incorporating modern electronic countermeasure pods, decoys such as chaff and flare , and anti-radiation missiles. Instead, they would launch Scud missiles, which the Iranians could not stop. Since the range of the Scud missile was too short to reach Tehran, they converted them to al-Hussein missiles with the help of East German engineers, cutting up their Scuds into three chunks and attaching them together.

Iran responded to these attacks by using their own Scud missiles. Compounding the extensive foreign help to Iraq, Iranian attacks were severely hampered by their shortages of weaponry, particularly heavy weapons as large amounts had been lost during the war. Iran still managed to maintain 1, tanks often by capturing Iraqi ones and additional artillery, but many needed repairs to be operational. However, by this time Iran managed to procure spare parts from various sources, helping them to restore some weapons.

Iran later reverse-engineered and produced those weapons themselves. On the night of 10—11 February , the Iranians launched Operation Dawn 8, [] in which 30, troops comprising five Army divisions and men from the Revolutionary Guard and Basij advanced in a two-pronged offensive to capture the al-Faw peninsula in southern Iraq, the only area touching the Persian Gulf. The resistance, consisting of several thousand poorly trained soldiers of the Iraqi Popular Army , fled or were defeated, and the Iranian forces set up pontoon bridges crossing the Shatt al-Arab [note 5] , allowing 30, soldiers to cross in a short period of time. The sudden capture of al-Faw took the Iraqis by shock, since they had thought it impossible for the Iranians to cross the Shatt al-Arab.

On 12 February , the Iraqis began a counter-offensive to retake al-Faw, which failed after a week of heavy fighting. However, their attempts again ended in failure, costing them many tanks and aircraft: [84] their 15th mechanised division was almost completely wiped out. In March , the Iranians tried to follow up their success by attempting to take Umm Qasr , which would have completely severed Iraq from the Gulf and placed Iranian troops on the border with Kuwait.

The battle bogged down into a World War I-style stalemate in the marshes of the peninsula. Immediately after the Iranian capture of al-Faw, Saddam declared a new offensive against Iran, designed to drive deep into the state. On 15—19 May, Iraqi Army's Second Corps, supported by helicopter gunships, attacked and captured the city. Saddam then offered the Iranians to exchange Mehran for al-Faw.

Iraq then continued the attack, attempting to push deeper into Iran. The Iranians built up their forces on the heights surrounding Mehran. On 30 June, using mountain warfare tactics they launched their attack, recapturing the city by 3 July. Iraqi losses were heavy enough to allow the Iranians to also capture territory inside Iraq, [81] [ page needed ] and depleted the Iraqi military enough to prevent them from launching a major offensive for the next two years. Through the eyes of international observers, Iran was prevailing in the war by the end of They came within 16 km 9.

Iran's army had also reached the Meimak Hills, only km 70 mi from Baghdad. Iraq responded by launching another "war of the cities". In one attack, Tehran's main oil refinery was hit, and in another instance, Iraq damaged Iran's Assadabad satellite dish, disrupting Iranian overseas telephone and telex service for almost two weeks. Iraq continued to attack oil tankers via air. Iraq continued to attack Kharg Island and the oil tankers and facilities as well. Iran created a tanker shuttle service of 20 tankers to move oil from Kharg to Larak Island, escorted by Iranian fighter jets. Once moved to Larak, the oil would be moved to oceangoing tankers usually neutral. By now they almost always used the armed speedboats of the IRGC navy , and attacked many tankers.

Iraq got permission from the Saudi government to use its airspace to attack Larak Island, although due to the distance attacks were less frequent there. The escalating tanker war in the Gulf became an ever-increasing concern to foreign powers, especially the United States. In April , Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa declaring that the war must be won by March The Iranians increased recruitment efforts, obtaining , volunteers. Faced with their recent defeats in al-Faw and Mehran, Iraq appeared to be losing the war. Iraq's generals, angered by Saddam's interference, threatened a full-scale mutiny against the Ba'ath Party unless they were allowed to conduct operations freely.

In one of the few times during his career, Saddam gave in to the demands of his generals. However, the defeat at al-Faw led Saddam to declare the war to be Al-Defa al-Mutaharakha The Dynamic Defense , [81] [ page needed ] and announcing that all civilians had to take part in the war effort. The universities were closed and all of the male students were drafted into the military. Civilians were instructed to clear marshlands to prevent Iranian amphibious infiltrations and to help build fixed defenses. The government tried to integrate the Shias into the war effort by recruiting many as part of the Ba'ath Party. Scenes of Saddam praying and making pilgrimages to shrines became common on state-run television.

While Iraqi morale had been low throughout the war, the attack on al-Faw raised patriotic fervor, as the Iraqis feared invasion. At the same time, Saddam ordered the genocidal al-Anfal Campaign in an attempt to crush the Kurdish resistance, who were now allied with Iran. The result was the deaths of several hundred thousand Iraqi Kurds, and the destruction of villages, towns, and cities. Iraq began to try to perfect its maneuver tactics.

Prior to , the conscription -based Iraqi regular army and the volunteer-based Iraqi Popular Army conducted the bulk of the operations in the war, to little effect. The Republican Guard, formerly an elite praetorian guard , was expanded as a volunteer army and filled with Iraq's best generals. After the war, due to Saddam's paranoia, the former duties of the Republican Guard were transferred to a new unit, the Special Republican Guard. Meanwhile, Iran continued to attack as the Iraqis were planning their strike. In the Iranians renewed a series of major human wave offensives in both northern and southern Iraq. The Iraqis had elaborately fortified Basra with 5 defensive rings, exploiting natural waterways such as the Shatt-al-Arab and artificial ones, such as Fish Lake and the Jasim River, along with earth barriers.

Fish Lake was a massive lake filled with mines, underwater barbed wire, electrodes and sensors. Behind each waterway and defensive line was radar-guided artillery, ground attack aircraft and helicopters, all capable of firing poison gas or conventional munitions. The Iranian strategy was to penetrate the Iraqi defences and encircle Basra, cutting off the city as well as the Al-Faw peninsula from the rest of Iraq. They then set up a pontoon bridge and continued the attack, eventually capturing the island in a costly success but failing to advance further; the Iranians had 60, casualties, while the Iraqis 9, When the main Iranian attack, Operation Karbala 5, began, many Iraqi troops were on leave.

This battle, known for its extensive casualties and ferocious conditions, was the biggest battle of the war and proved to be the beginning of the end of the Iran—Iraq War. At the same time as Operation Karbala 5, Iran also launched Operation Karbala-6 against the Iraqis in Qasr-e Shirin in central Iran to prevent the Iraqis from rapidly transferring units down to defend against the Karbala-5 attack. The attack was carried out by Basij infantry and the Revolutionary Guard's 31st Ashura and the Army's 77th Khorasan armored divisions.

The Basij attacked the Iraqi lines, forcing the Iraqi infantry to retreat. An Iraqi armored counter-attack surrounded the Basij in a pincer movement, but the Iranian tank divisions attacked, breaking the encirclement. The Iranian attack was finally stopped by mass Iraqi chemical weapons attacks. Operation Karbala-5 was a severe blow to Iran's military and morale.

By , Iran had become self-sufficient in many areas, such as anti-tank TOW missiles, Scud ballistic missiles Shahab-1 , Silkworm anti-ship missiles, Oghab tactical rockets, and producing spare parts for their weaponry. Iran had also improved its air defenses with smuggled surface to air missiles. While it was not obvious to foreign observers, the Iranian public had become increasingly war-weary and disillusioned with the fighting, and relatively few volunteers joined the fight in — Because the Iranian war effort relied on popular mobilization, their military strength actually declined, and Iran was unable to launch any major offensives after Karbala As a result, for the first time since , the momentum of the fighting shifted towards the regular army.

Since the regular army was conscription based, it made the war even less popular. Many Iranians began to try to escape the conflict. As early as May , anti-war demonstrations took place in 74 cities throughout Iran, which were crushed by the regime, resulting in some protesters being shot and killed. Others, particularly the more nationalistic and religious, the clergy, and the Revolutionary Guards, wished to continue the war. The leadership acknowledged that the war was a stalemate, and began to plan accordingly. On the Iranian home front, sanctions, declining oil prices, and Iraqi attacks on Iranian oil facilities and shipping took a heavy toll on the economy. While the attacks themselves were not as destructive as some analysts believed, the U.

By the end of , Iraq possessed 5, tanks outnumbering the Iranians six to one and fighter aircraft outnumbering the Iranians ten to one. Iraq also became self-sufficient in chemical weapons and some conventional ones and received much equipment from abroad. While the southern and central fronts were at a stalemate, Iran began to focus on carrying out offensives in northern Iraq with the help of the Peshmerga Kurdish insurgents. The Iranians used a combination of semi-guerrilla and infiltration tactics in the Kurdish mountains with the Peshmerga. During Operation Karbala-9 in early April, Iran captured territory near Suleimaniya, provoking a severe poison gas counter-attack. During Operation Karbala , Iran attacked near the same area, capturing more territory.

During Operation Nasr-4 , the Iranians surrounded the city of Suleimaniya and, with the help of the Peshmerga, infiltrated over km into Iraq and raided and threatened to capture the oil-rich city of Kirkuk and other northern oilfields. The Iranian Air Force, despite its once sophisticated equipment, lacked enough equipment and personnel to sustain the war of attrition that had developed, and was unable to lead an outright onslaught against Iraq. The Soviets began delivering more advanced aircraft and weapons to Iraq, while the French improved training for flight crews and technical personnel and continually introduced new methods for countering Iranian weapons and tactics. The main Iraqi air effort had shifted to the destruction of Iranian war-fighting capability primarily Persian Gulf oil fields, tankers, and Kharg Island , and starting in late , the Iraqi Air Force began a comprehensive campaign against the Iranian economic infrastructure.

Navy ships tracked and reported movements of Iranian shipping and defences. The attacks on oil tankers continued. Both Iran and Iraq carried out frequent attacks during the first four months of the year. Iran was effectively waging a naval guerilla war with its IRGC navy speedboats, while Iraq attacked with its aircraft. In , Kuwait asked to reflag its tankers to the U. They did so in March, and the U. Navy began Operation Earnest Will to escort the tankers. Iran deployed Silkworm missiles to attack ships, but only a few were actually fired. Both the United States and Iran jockeyed for influence in the Gulf. To discourage the United States from escorting tankers, Iran secretly mined some areas.

The United States began to escort the reflagged tankers, but one was damaged by a mine while under escort. While being a public-relations victory for Iran, the United States increased its reflagging efforts. While Iran mined the Persian Gulf, their speedboat attacks were reduced, primarily attacking unflagged tankers shipping in the area. Iran had previously sought to maintain at least a pretense of plausible deniability regarding its use of mines, but the Navy SEALS captured and photographed extensive evidence of Iran Ajr ' s mine-laying activities. Navy destroyed four Iranian speedboats, and in response to Iranian Silkworm missile attacks on Kuwaiti oil tankers, launched Operation Nimble Archer , destroying two Iranian oil rigs in the Persian Gulf. Iran managed to shoot down 30 Iraqi fighters with fighter jets, anti-aircraft guns, and missiles, allowing the Iranian air force to survive to the end of the war.

On 28 June, Iraqi fighter bombers attacked the Iranian town of Sardasht near the border, using chemical mustard gas bombs. While many towns and cities had been bombed before, and troops attacked with gas, this was the first time that the Iraqis had attacked a civilian area with poison gas. While little known outside of Iran unlike the later Halabja chemical attack , the Sardasht bombing and future similar attacks had a tremendous effect on the Iranian people's psyche. By , with massive equipment imports and reduced Iranian volunteers, Iraq was ready to launch major offensives against Iran.

With their tankers protected by U. These attacks began to have a major toll on the Iranian economy and morale and caused many casualties. In March , the Iranians carried out Operation Dawn 10 , Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas 2 , and Operation Zafar 7 in Iraqi Kurdistan with the aim of capturing the Darbandikhan Dam and the power plant at Lake Dukan , which supplied Iraq with much of its electricity and water, as well as the city of Suleimaniya.

Though the Iranians advanced to within sight of Dukan and captured around 1, km 2 sq mi and 4, Iraqi troops, the offensive failed due to the Iraqi use of chemical warfare. Key areas, such as supply lines, command posts, and ammunition depots, were hit by a storm of mustard gas and nerve gas , as well as by conventional explosives. Helicopters landed Iraqi commandos behind Iranian lines on al-Faw while the main Iraqi force made a frontal assault. Within 48 hours, all of the Iranian forces had been killed or cleared from the al-Faw Peninsula. The Iraqis had planned the offensive well. Prior to the attack, the Iraqi soldiers gave themselves poison gas antidotes to shield themselves from the effect of the saturation of gas.

The heavy and well executed use of chemical weapons was the decisive factor in the victory. To the shock of the Iranians, rather than breaking off the offensive, the Iraqis kept up their drive, and a new force attacked the Iranian positions around Basra. Using artillery, they would saturate the Iranian front line with rapidly dispersing cyanide and nerve gas, while longer-lasting mustard gas was launched via fighter-bombers and rockets against the Iranian rear, creating a "chemical wall" that blocked reinforcement. The same day as Iraq's attack on al-Faw peninsula, the United States Navy launched Operation Praying Mantis in retaliation against Iran for damaging a warship with a mine.

Iran lost oil platforms , destroyers , and frigates in this battle, which ended only when President Reagan decided that the Iranian navy had been damaged enough. In spite of this, the Revolutionary Guard Navy continued their speedboat attacks against oil tankers. Faced with such losses, Khomeini appointed the cleric Hashemi Rafsanjani as the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces , though he had in actuality occupied that position for months. The Iranians infiltrated through the Iraqi trenches and moved 10 km 6.

With aircraft sorties and heavy use of nerve gas, they crushed the Iranian forces in the area, killing 3, and nearly destroying a Revolutionary Guard division. On 25 May , Iraq launched the first of five Tawakalna ala Allah Operations , [] consisting of one of the largest artillery barrages in history, coupled with chemical weapons. The marshes had been dried by drought, allowing the Iraqis to use tanks to bypass Iranian field fortifications, expelling the Iranians from the border town of Shalamcheh after less than 10 hours of combat.

Iraqi commandos used amphibious craft to block the Iranian rear, [81] then used hundreds of tanks with massed conventional and chemical artillery barrages to recapture the island after 8 hours of combat. These losses included more than of the 1, remaining Iranian tanks, over armored vehicles, 45 self-propelled artillery, towed artillery pieces, and antiaircraft guns. These figures only included what Iraq could actually put to use; total amount of captured materiel was higher.

Since March, the Iraqis claimed to have captured 1, tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, heavy artillery pieces, 6, mortars, 5, recoilless rifles and light guns, 8,man-portable rocket launchers, 60, rifles, pistols, trucks, and 1, light vehicles. During the battles, the Iranians put up little resistance, having been worn out by nearly eight years of war.

However, this came too late and, following the capture of of their operable tanks and the destruction of hundreds more, Iran was believed to have fewer than remaining operable tanks on the southern front, against thousands of Iraqi ones. Saddam sent a warning to Khomeini in mid, threatening to launch a new and powerful full-scale invasion and attack Iranian cities with weapons of mass destruction. Shortly afterwards, Iraqi aircraft bombed the Iranian town of Oshnavieh with poison gas, immediately killing and wounding over 2, civilians. The fear of an all out chemical attack against Iran's largely unprotected civilian population weighed heavily on the Iranian leadership, and they realized that the international community had no intention of restraining Iraq.

Meanwhile, Iraqi conventional bombs and missiles continuously hit towns and cities, destroying vital civilian and military infrastructure, and increasing the death toll. Iran replied with missile and air attacks, but not sufficiently to deter the Iraqis. With the threat of a new and even more powerful invasion, Commander-in-Chief Rafsanjani ordered the Iranians to retreat from Haj Omran, Kurdistan on 14 July. Dozens of villages, such as Sardasht , and some larger towns, such as Marivan , Baneh and Saqqez , [] were once again attacked with poison gas, resulting in even heavier civilian casualties.

The lack of international sympathy disturbed the Iranian leadership, and they came to the conclusion that the United States was on the verge of waging a full-scale war against them, and that Iraq was on the verge of unleashing its entire chemical arsenal upon their cities. At this point, elements of the Iranian leadership, led by Rafsanjani who had initially pushed for the extension of the war , persuaded Khomeini to accept a ceasefire. Happy are those who have departed through martyrdom. Happy are those who have lost their lives in this convoy of light. Unhappy am I that I still survive and have drunk the poisoned chalice The news of the end of the war was greeted with celebration in Baghdad, with people dancing in the streets; in Tehran, however, the end of the war was greeted with a somber mood.

Both Iran and Iraq had accepted Resolution , but despite the ceasefire, after seeing Iraqi victories in the previous months, Mujahadeen-e-Khalq MEK decided to launch an attack of its own and wished to advance all the way to Tehran. Saddam and the Iraqi high command decided on a two-pronged offensive across the border into central Iran and Iranian Kurdistan. In the north, Iraq also launched an attack into Iraqi Kurdistan, which was blunted by the Iranians. The Iranians had withdrawn their remaining soldiers to Khuzestan in fear of a new Iraqi invasion attempt, allowing the Mujahedeen to advance rapidly towards Kermanshah , seizing Qasr-e Shirin , Sarpol-e Zahab , Kerend-e Gharb , and Islamabad-e-Gharb.

The MEK expected the Iranian population to rise up and support their advance; the uprising never materialised but they reached km 90 mi deep into Iran. Iranian paratroopers landed behind the MEK lines while the Iranian Air Force and helicopters launched an air attack, destroying much of the enemy columns. The last notable combat actions of the war took place on 3 August , in the Persian Gulf when the Iranian navy fired on a freighter and Iraq launched chemical attacks on Iranian civilians, killing an unknown number of them and wounding 2, Resolution became effective on 8 August , ending all combat operations between the two countries. By Cristina Cabrera October 8, p. By Kate Riga October 8, p.

Meet The Jan. By Josh Kovensky October 8, p. By Cristina Cabrera October 8, a. By Josh Kovensky October 7, p. By Cristina Cabrera October 7, p. By Josh Kovensky October 7, a. Idaho Lt. By Cristina Cabrera October 6, p.

The US force's munitions ran so low that Announcing War Against Iraq Speech Analysis to fix bayonets were given in preparation for hand-to-hand fighting. The attack was claimed to Announcing War Against Iraq Speech Analysis been carried out by Announcing War Against Iraq Speech Analysis Islamic State of Iraq. Spring Further information: in Iraq and Military transition team. The concentration of forces did Announcing War Against Iraq Speech Analysis resemble The Inca Empire: Religious Significance In Machu Picchu traditional military buildup, Announcing War Against Iraq Speech Analysis although the Iraqis detected a population buildup near the front, they Announcing War Against Iraq Speech Analysis to realize that this was Announcing War Against Iraq Speech Analysis attacking force.

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