① Sigmund Freud Rat Man Essay

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Sigmund Freud Rat Man Essay



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Jacques Lacan - On Obsession and the Rat Man Case

And so for the first two weeks in September the stage-struck accountant had a two-minute, two-line part. What was his role? At first, their use may be conscious, even studied. However, the squeaks will soon disappear. Try a few this weekend. Note the resemblance between flamboyant and ostentatious. Indian summer x. From Week 12 Choose the word that makes sense in each of the sentences below. The senator went into a lengthy diatribe, remuneration about government waste in the military budget.

Most reformers are seeking to create a schism, utopia. Lorraine was criticized sharply for the ostentatious, nominal way in which she furnished her apartment. Anyone so ilk, timorous should not have been selected to guard the castle. My brother was promoted to a prestigious, flamboyant job in his company. Although his speech was anathema, jaunty we were able to sense its underlying seriousness.

The failing grade was expunged, truncated from her record when she submitted the excellent term paper. I got my job as a result of a fractious, fortuitous meeting with the director of personnel. The bookkeeper is such an integral, incoherent part of our organization that we pay her a very high salary. We marched in front of the embassy with placards, inhibitions held high. The television talk shows of our era, featuring such public figures as Regis Philbin, Oprah Winfrey, and Ellen De Generes, attract millions of daytime viewers and constitute a powerful influence on the American scene. When the media can hold the attention of so sizable a chunk of couch potatoes, it pays to scrutinize it closely.

A student at Stanford University, doing her doctoral thesis on the unusual popularity of the afternoon talk shows, noted the fierce competition among those programs for guests who are off the beaten track. They have shown teenagers who marry people in their sixties, daughters and mothers who date the same man, men who have gone through a marriage ceremony with other men, women with prominent tattoos, and other people who are totally free of.

And say what you want about good taste, millions watch us every day, and as long as the ratings are that healthy, sponsors will pay good money to be identified with us. The scientists were alarmed by incontrovertible evidence of surreptitious German experiments, and they asked for speedy approval. Italian-born Enrico Fermi was the ideal man to lead the atomic research. Already in he had won the Nobel Prize for work with radioactive elements and neutron bombardment. Fermi had found a haven from the Fascists his wife was Jewish and he knew that if the Germans were the first to develop an atomic bomb it would mean that Hitler could subjugate the entire world. The international race for atomic supremacy was on.

It consisted of layers of graphite, alternated with chunks of uranium. The uranium emitted neutrons, and the graphite slowed them down. Holes were left for long cadmium safety rods. By withdrawing those control rods Fermi could speed up the production of neutrons, thus increasing the number of uranium atoms that would be split fission. When the rods were withdrawn to a critical point, then the neutrons would be produced so fast that the graphite and cadmium could not absorb them.

In that manner a chain reaction would result. The big question remained—was it viable? Fermi moved his materials to an abandoned squash court under a football stadium at the University of Chicago. His pace accelerated because they were proceeding on the premise that the Germans were close to atomic success. Six weeks after the pile had been started, its critical size was reached. Almost fifty scientists and several incredulous observers mounted a balcony to watch.

One physicist remained on the floor; it was his job to extract the final cadmium control rod. Unbearable tension permeated the atmosphere. Fermi completed his calculations, waited for a propitious moment, and then gave the signal. After twenty-eight minutes he curtailed the experiment, giving the signal to replace the control rod. The normally reserved scientists, unable to repress their excitement, let out a tremendous cheer and gathered around Fermi to shake his hand. You now have the chance to see whether you remember their definitions.

Lucas, a super sniffer, to work. A canine trainer offered the pig to Union City, suggesting that its intelligence and unique skill will make Lucas a fighter against illegal narcotics. Jagusak has already taught his pound porker-detective how to find cocaine, hashish, and marijuana. While some law enforcement officials were at first, they quickly became believers when they saw the Sherlock Holmes of the sty locate underground drug scents that had eluded trained dogs. Dorie was black, and the highest job to which he could then aspire in the U. Navy was that of messman. While Dorie was technically a member of a great fighting fleet, he was not expected to fight. Most Army and Navy officers inveighed against blacks as fighting men.

Although blacks were nettled by such overt prejudice, Dorie Miller apparently accepted being relegated to the role of a messhall servant. Now, as he poured the coffee, Dorie was wondering why the airplanes above were making so much noise on a peaceful Sunday morning. Sample Sentences Use the new words in the proper blanks. Jumping up from his supine position, the powerfully built messman from Waco, Texas, headed for the deck. Everywhere that Dorie looked he saw smoke and mammoth warships lying on their sides. Overhead, dozens of Japanese dive bombers controlled the skies without a U. The havoc was enormous. Definitions Match the new words with their meaning.

He dragged his captain to safety and turned back to see that the machine-gunner had been killed. Dorie took the big gun and trained it on the incoming bombers. Within the space of ten minutes he was credited with destroying four bombers while dodging the bullets of their fighter escorts. The enemy scurried away, having struck the incisive blow that precipitated U. Amidst the dead bodies and the ruined fleet were the heroes such as Dorie Miller. The Navy had attempted to stereotype him, but Dorie changed all that. Although he could have accepted a sinecure at a U. Philadelphia lawyer v. Ellen Kaner, a Dallas chemist. They admitted that the phrase in question, one of selected by computer chips, was a mistake.

Not only will we remove it immediately but will swap with anyone who bought the offending doll. Danny had confessed to complicity in the killing of his brother-in-law after the police had refused to allow him to see his lawyer. Despite the fact that Danny later recanted his confession, he was found culpable and jailed. Two of the words are very close in meaning. He proposed that lawyers be entitled to sit in when the police question a suspect but the Illinois courts rejected that on the grounds that it would effectively preclude all questioning by legal authorities.

Legal aid, said the judges, must be instantly available to a suspect. Each case was heard on its merits, and in numerous instances people who had been convicted of serious offenses were freed because of the new standards established in the Escobedo case. After getting out, Danny was not a paragon of virtue, according to the police. He led a nomadic existence, drifting from job to job, and was arrested frequently. With asperity, and a few choice epithets, Danny referred to police harassment. In a sense, everyone who listens to you is wire-tapping your conversation. By the end of this week you will have gained a greater familiarity with words and 60 idioms— enough to educate a conscientious wire-tapper.

Numbers 1 and 13 are close in meaning. Clues 2nd Day 1st Day 4th Day 1st Day 4th Day Questionable Advertisements The Nostalgia Factory, a Boston art gallery, staged an exhibit of advertisements that had outraged various segments of the community. For example, one of the fast food chains ran a TV commercial that showed unattractive school cafeteria workers in hairnets, making that experience less tasty than a visit to Roy Rogers. Who is asking companies to contracts with those agencies that are in creating racist types of commercial messages? The honeybee is a gregarious insect whose habitat is a colony that he shares with as many as 80, bees. Although the individual bees live for only a few days, their colony can be operative for several years.

A cursory study of the activities of these insects reveals an orderliness and a social structure that is truly amazing. The queen lays the eggs that hatch into thousands of female workers; some queens live as long as five years and lay up to one million eggs. The frugal worker builds and maintains the nest, collects and stores the honey, and is the antithesis of the lazy drone, or male honeybee, who does not work and has no sting. After the workers have constructed a hive of waterproof honeycomb made from beeswax , the queen begins to lay eggs in the first cells. While some workers embellish the hive, others fly out in search of nectar and pollen.

With their long tongues they gather nectar and use their hind legs to carry the pollen from the flowers. They fly directly back to the hive and then dance around the honeycomb, their movements indicating the direction of the flowers. Meanwhile, other workers have been cleaning cells, caring for the young, and guarding the precious cache of nectar. Another special coterie is entrusted with heating or cooling the hive. Dedicated to the welfare of the queen and the entire insect community, all of these workers display a complete absence of cupidity.

Workers choose a few larvae to be queens, feeding them royal jelly, a substance rich in proteins and vitamins. While the queen is changing from a larva to a pupa, a team of workers builds a special cell for her. Soon the young queen hatches, eats the prepared honey, and grows strong. After she kills any rivals who have the temerity to challenge her, an amorous note is injected. She flies from the hive and mates with one or more drones on her first flight. Then the process of egg laying begins. When her progeny saturate the hive, scouts are dispatched to find a new location, and the bees swarm after their leader to begin the amazing cycle again.

Sample Sentences Use the new words in the following sentences; remember, past tenses may be required. The filth of the lucre did not disturb him at all. One Friday evening, Roy continued, a brash had the to try to steal the ill- gotten gains. Having bought the combination from a relative who had installed Mr. His made him go back for that small change, and in that moment, Mr. In short, the idea was to plant fallacious documents concerning the Allied invasion of Europe upon a dead officer, have his body recovered by agents who would transmit the false information to Germany, and then observe the effects of the plan.

First, they conducted an assiduous search for a body that looked as though it had recently been killed in an airplane disaster. Then, a detailed history of the man had to be invented that would be so impeccable that the enemy would accept its authenticity. This meant documents, love letters, personal effects, keys, photographs, etc. Each step was fraught with difficulty, but the schemers were unbelievably resourceful.

Shortly thereafter, the Spanish Embassy notified the British that the body had been recovered. The secret information was transmitted to the German High Command, through a labyrinth of underground networks, to be evaluated. Subsequently, when the actual attack took place, Allied casualties were minimized. After the war, Commander Montagu received a medal from the king of England. At the presentation ceremony, the king politely inquired where the young officer had earned his citation.

But Major Martin, undoubtedly, would have known all the words below—do you? Note the similarity between numbers 13 and The U. Benson had claimed that whatever money he collects on the street can be compared to the funds raised by legitimate charities, and, therefore, he is entitled to a federal deduction. Government officials regard his analogy as and disagree. She countered that, if Jack merely sat on a street corner with his hand out, the government had a good case. With a mixture of innate movements and learned ones, some laboratory chimps now have an extensive vocabulary.

It is irrelevant that Washoe cannot actually talk. Several years ago, two married researchers embarked on an interesting project: they reared and trained a chimp in almost the same manner as they would have raised a child. The animal did beautifully, convincing the couple of the inherent ability of the chimpanzee. They can press buttons, manipulate levers, avoid shocks, etc. When food is placed out of reach, the animals can prepare a ladder of boxes to reach it. With the aid of his long, powerful hands he can swing rapidly from tree to tree and cover considerable ground in his peregrinations. Chimps are loyal in their conjugal relationships, taking only one mate at a time.

The warmth of Mr. However, higher animals who apply themselves can master all of them. Note the similarity between numbers 8 and 9. Labor Department, court officials, legislators, religious groups, and community agencies. Unscrupulous contractors scour the countryside in search of homeless, , and unemployed men and women, offering to put them to work at good jobs picking fruits and vegetables. Labor Department investigates the of complaints of abused workers, issues fines, and revokes the licenses of contractors. But many such shady employers pay the fines which they to be operating expenses and continue to run company stores that cheat the workers, subjugate them with drugs and alcohol, them with advances on their paltry wages at high interest, and use violence against those whom they regard as troublemakers.

His story is repeated by hundreds of others who have been treated shabbily by corrupt contractors. Until sufficient funds are allocated by state and federal agencies, and until there is the proper public response, these abuses will continue. Following a bloodless coup, his nephew, Prince Schubert, took command of the poor nation. Sample Sentences Based upon your understanding of the new words, as discovered from the context, use the correct words in the following sentences. Those who had been jailed on false charges were exonerated by special tribunals. In addition, Prince Schubert was able to get the United States to underwrite a substantial loan that would enable him to start a program of public works.

Even so, Ruritania was still in desperate trouble. Speaking on radio, the young reformer explained the reasons for higher taxes and food rationing; he was blunt when he stated the need for personal sacrifices. Use the new words in the following sentences yourself. The words that you are about to review, however, are all legitimate, acceptable dictionary words. Despite the lack of hard evidence, some people continue to believe that the depths of our lakes and isolated mountain caves remain the dwelling places of fantasy figures. Now, a new star for the credulous has surfaced.

Japanese television was asked to a search for Ogopogo, a long-necked reptilian creature said to inhabit Lake Okanagan in the mountains of south-central British Columbia. Ogopogo stories are in that area as people produce photos of rippling water and shadows resembling an enormous serpent with flippers, gliding slowly in large circles. Those who at what they regard as nonsense and pagan superstition are quite in belittling Ogopogo fans. Nevertheless, the legends, which have a life of their own, happily, have brought thousands of tourists and business to the Okanagan Valley. Public health officials are quick to indict the insects as carriers of viruses that cause yellow fever and polio.

Although past evidence has been somewhat nebulous, recent studies also show that an allergy to roaches may contribute significantly to asthma. Little wonder, therefore, that the pesky cockroach is under attack. Upon entering a cellar that is redolent with their aroma, you are not likely to forget the odor. No one can accuse the hungry and thirsty bugs of being abstemious. Sample Sentences The words above fit into the blanks below. They have endured the vicissitudes of weather, natural disasters, war, and planned liquidation.

The climate may be sultry or frigid but roaches persevere. As soon as the scientists devise a puissant chemical, some bugs succumb. Since the average female produces close to three hundred descendants, little hope is held out for a final solution to the roach problem. Nevertheless, extermination campaigns continue unabated. Surprisingly, some sentimental souls become maudlin as they consider the persecution of the insects.

Whether you are going to get excited over a roach, write a poem, take a College Board examination, or compose a letter to a loved one, it helps to have a rich vocabulary. Pesky k. Reviled b. Maudlin l. Puissant c. Repose m. Nebulous d. Abstemious n. Trenchant e. Sultry o. Lugubrious f. Vicissitudes p. Disparate g. Redolent q. Indict h. Levity r. Extant i. Derogatory s. Omnivorous j. Unabated t. Edifice 1. Everest Clues 1st Day 4th Day 1st Day 2nd Day 1st Day Chlorine Compounds on Trial The chances are that the water supply where you live is disinfected by chlorine, one of the elements on the periodic table. Yet, complaints about chlorine continue , identifying it as a health and environmental risk. Greenpeace, the environmental activist group, stands ready to chlorinated organic elements, alleging that they are toxic.

The Federal Environmental Protection Agency is reexamining the health hazards that are prevalent when materials containing chlorine are processed at high temperatures. A scientist with the Environmental Defense Fund thinks that chlorinated chemicals should be phased out. Growing up in an atmosphere of opulence, the young prince was constantly shielded from the cruel realities of the world. An army of obsequious servants and tutors catered to his every desire, providing Siddhartha with instruction in riding, fencing, dancing, and painting—while lavishing fulsome praise upon him. Which two words are almost synonymous? First he would cleanse himself by becoming an ascetic; then he would study Hindu wisdom in order to be prepared to help his suffering people.

After six years of desultory wandering and attracting only a handful of disciples, Siddhartha came to a huge tree near the Indian city of Gaya. For seven weeks he sat beneath its branches, seeking an answer for his personal torment. Finally, it is said, he underwent a metamorphosis, becoming the Enlightened One—the Buddha. Only through the middle path could man achieve bona fide peace and salvation. Buddha continued to preach until the age of eighty, spreading the philosophy that man has the power to shape his own destiny.

Through good deeds and pure thoughts man may reach nirvana. Interestingly enough, the man who objected to traditional religious worship was to become idolized by millions throughout the world. This week is no exception. In a celebrated essay about Joan of Arc, Mark Twain wrote movingly of her brief moment in the spotlight—two short years in which she made an indelible mark on world history. At age 16 she was illiterate, had never strayed from her sleepy little village, knew nothing of military combat, or courts of law. But at age 17, in a complete she was named Commander- in-Chief of the French army, vowing to restore her king to his throne. Joan defended herself brilliantly at a court trial, although she could neither read nor write.

She was able to forecast future events with remarkable accuracy, correctly predicting her own martyrdom. Mark Twain understood how geniuses such as Napoleon, Edison, and Wagner could develop but one could the facts for a lifetime without being able to explain how this humble peasant girl could display the qualities of a mature statesman, a learned jurist, and a military wizard. But the statistics are inexact because it is estimated that there are nine covert alcoholics for every one under treatment. She started drinking socially in high school or college. Although frequently incapacitated, she can fabricate a story skillfully and thus conceal her true physical condition. She often attributes her alcoholism to connubial stress, boredom, or depression. A large percentage of the women give family histories of alcoholism.

From time to time in the lessons that follow, your alertness will be tested as a previously learned word is reintroduced. Maslow arrived, but when she left it was in apple pie order. If women realized the harmful extent of the cumulative effect of alcohol, they might taper off in their public and recondite drinking. Forty-three percent of the female alcoholics in a survey showed evidence of liver damage, and a quarter of the whole group had a high white-blood-cell count. Almost five percent of the patients died shortly after their release from the hospital. Sample Sentences If you can still see clearly after all the references to liquor, use the new words in the following sentences.

Using alcohol in an attempt to palliate her problems. Deluding herself about the extent of her drinking habits. Drinking at regular time periods, both day and night. Reliance upon alcohol as a prelude to a major social obligation. Using alcohol as a medication for real or chimerical illnesses. The head counselor ran our camp according to his own Draconian Code. Alcohol does not mix with gasoline! We have seen those slogans on many billboards. Draconian Code x. Consider the of the salon owners. But a spokesperson for the Department of Consumer Affairs said that beauty parlors will have to with the situation honestly, just as dry cleaners and used-car dealers did when they were apprised of the law.

A city-proposed settlement, however, is to have those salons that are cited for violations of the law offer free haircuts to women for a period of three months before having to pay a stiff fine for repeated offenses. As Mr. Sloane pursued his investigation of the phenomenon, he discovered that a Dr. Furthermore, those at the bottom of the alphabet tended to contract more ulcers, were more susceptible to heart attacks, and were more likely to be neurotic than those at the top of the alphabet. Weston is convinced that the pedagogue is the culprit. The inordinate amount of waiting that this group has to do causes them to become irascible and jittery. Sloane did not want to perpetuate the disorders that stemmed from the alphabetical arrangement.

He called it a compensatory factor to neutralize the catastrophic effects of the traditional policy. Soon, Mr. George Richmond, a Yale graduate who became a in the New York City school system, felt that elementary school youngsters could also be interested, even excited, about such issues. He experimented in his own classes with the Microsociety in which basic instruction takes place and is reinforced as pupils operate their own businesses, pass laws, live within the parameters of a constitution that they drafted, seek redress within their own judicial system, buy and sell real estate, and so on.

In the afternoon, the students apply what they learned in activities that run the from keeping double entry books, doing financial audits, running a bank, and conducting court sessions to engaging in light manufacture that leads to retail and wholesale commerce. Many primitive people believe that certain inanimate objects have a will of their own and possess some magical powers. These fetishes may be simple things like a particular feather of a bird or a unique pebble. The fetish might have derived its power, according to members of some tribes, from a god who lives within the object and has changed it into a thing of magic. Fetishes need not only be natural objects, however. An artifact such as a sculpture or carving is also believed to possess supernatural powers.

Sample Sentences Now use your new words in the following sentences. The explorers saw the golden statue and thought of how much money it would bring them. Definitions If you have studied the reading selection and the sample sentences, now try your hand at matching your new words with their definitions. Whereas the gods or supernatural powers merely inhabit an object that is a fetish and lend it magic, they will punish the imprudent native who violates their prohibition of an act or use of an object or word that has become taboo.

If a taboo has been broken, it becomes imperative for the offender to be punished. In many cases, however, the taint on the community may be removed after the priests have performed a special ceremony. Often, the violator of the taboo will be punished or die merely through his own fears of the terrible thing he has done. Sample Sentences Has the context in which your new words appear given you clues to their meaning? Try now to use them in these sample sentences.

The health department refused to allow the soda to be sold. Definitions Now is your chance to test your knowledge of your new words by matching them with their definitions. Since doctors tell us that excessive sun-tanning may be a cause of skin cancer, our strange yearning for sun-darkened skin has all the qualities of a fetish. Yet, how many were totally foreign several days ago? Keep up the good work now by using your new words in the following sentences. Definitions Match your new words with their definitions. Although the tradition continues today, few people are aware of its history. A superstition originates in ignorance—when people are unsure of the causes of events.

But it continues inviolable over the years because it usually represents our deepest fears. Sample Sentences Use these new words in the following sentences. This is the way language works. It is impossible to provide a one-word synonym or simple definition for a word that you will always be able to substitute for it. Therefore, in our weekly review we hope not only to check your learning, but also to teach you closely related meanings. Match the best possible definition with the word you studied.

These words must be studied independently if you want to master them. Use them in original sentences. Also, study the several different definitions a good dictionary provides for each of these problem words. Each time a country changes its name or its borders, there are some people who have their work cut out for them. They are the map makers—the cartographers. Has there ever been an border?

Looking through an atlas of just a few years back, we realize it is simply an of an ever-changing world. If there is one thing for map makers to do, it is to realize how it is for them to keep abreast of world events. The study of world history is replete with exciting events that have shaken the economic and political past. Geography is the physical rendering of these events. As history moves and changes our lives, it is up to the cartographer to take the lines of a map and shape the picture of this world in motion. A quick search of Google Earth brings our ever-changing planet to our screen.

Perhaps the greatest volcanic eruption of modern times took place in when the island of Krakatoa in Indonesia blew up as the result of a volcanic explosion. New islands were formed by the lava that poured out, and debris was scattered across the Indian Ocean for hundreds of miles. Volcanic material, dispersed seventeen miles into the atmosphere, created startlingly beautiful sunsets for years afterwards. Sample Sentences Relying on the contextual clues in the paragraph above, use the new words in the following sentences. After her house had burned to the ground, Mrs. Definitions Now take the final step in learning the new words.

We are now faced with the deplorable prospect of new weapons that can cause destruction of life and property on a scale far beyond our imagination. No matter who takes the first step to initiate a conflict, the possibility exists that the conflagration will spread and envelop the world. Much thought has been given to ways and means of preventing this catastrophe.

Sample Sentences Use the new words in these sentences. Unfortunately, this congenial condition is fast disappearing. As our population increases, as industry consumes more water each year, the level of our underground water supply sinks measurably. There is no way to hoard water; there are many ways to conserve it. During a particularly dry spell, New York City found its reservoirs going dry. Only then did the residents begin to heed the sage advice to limit the wasteful uses of water. Under the aegis of the Water Commissioner, citizens were encouraged to develop habits that would save water.

Reports of a man in Chile or a woman in Turkey who has celebrated the th or th birthday occur regularly. The natural question is, to what do these people owe their longevity? Frequently, the answer concerns the fact that the ancient one liked to imbibe regularly of some hard liquor. The photograph will show an apparently virile man or robust woman. Somehow, people who reach this advanced age seem to remain eternally sturdy. There are no signs that they have become senile. Smoking a pipe, or sewing on some garment, these rare specimens of hardy humanity are far from the doddering folk we expect to see. Remember, in our language there may be many synonyms and related meanings for each word.

Knowing one synonym is good, but you will reap greater benefits from knowing several. Below is the matching review for this week. These problem words can be mastered quickly if you write them down, look up their meanings, and practice using them. When we lose sight of the fact that countless numbers of creatures have become extinct because their environment could no longer sustain them, then we ignore the possibility that these same changes could many species that we take for granted.

Our life-style, and that of the billions of others on this earth, puts waste into the air and water. We may this careless behavior. While there may still be enough clean water and air for us, the loss of animals and plants can only be a to a good life for the generations that follow. No one suggests that the solutions to our environmental problems are easy. The nations and people of the world are in competition for the limited riches of this planet. It will take the sagest and most dedicated leaders, under whose educated and concerned citizens will live and work, to protect the environment.

The most prevalent of these is the mass media. Bearing this responsibility, the mass media are often accused of being remiss in their duty to inform the public. There has been a great deal of hostile comment leveled against these opinion molders. Sample Sentences Based upon your understanding of the new words as discovered from the context, use them in the spaces provided. In many hundreds of papers this falls below two percent. Why is there this aversion to foreign news? Newsmen claim that readers evince no interest in foreign affairs. In order to increase reader interest in foreign news, the vogue among editors is to sensationalize it to the point of distortion.

Many other papers do only the most superficial kind of reporting in this area. The editor must include or jettison items as he sees fit. It is inevitable that his ideas of what the reader want to know, or should know, are decisive. Because the newspaper owners do not want to endanger a lucrative business, there is the constant tussle between personal opinion and the desire not to offend too many readers or advertisers. It is intrinsic to the operation of all mass media that they avoid being extremist in their news coverage or editorials. A normal broadcast can cover only a small part of a news day. The object is to transmit the gist of a story without supplying its background. Another difficulty of electronic news broadcasting is its transient nature; the viewers or listeners may miss an important story if their attention wanders.

On the other hand, because radio and television present news in a more terse and exciting way, they are accepted as the most cogent presentation of news and are preferred and believed above newspapers by most people. Sample Sentences A slow and thorough study is needed today. Before the game players spend as much time as possible taking their batting practice. During the game the batter concentrates on every pitch. At least that is the belief. The real Billy the Kid, William Bonney, is believed to have escaped and lived for many years in Texas. When Roberts died in , there was the question about his true identity. As a result, a computer was brought in to test whether there was anything other than a resemblance between the two men.

A photo of the Kid and a photo of Roberts were compared on the computer. In a report from the computer technician, the identity of Roberts was proved to be different from that of the real Billy the Kid. Thus, computer analysis allows us to the idea that Billy the Kid survived the famous gun duel. Every leading nation produced its share of great composers. There was a bewildering array of national schools and musical styles as the once obscure musician came into his own. Music became a widespread and democratic art. The ardent music lover turned to Vienna as the music center at the beginning of the nineteenth century.

However, Paris was not far behind, especially in the field of operatic music. The growth of German music can be said to have culminated with Ludwig van Beethoven. Sample Sentences Take command of the new words in these sentences. Definitions Match-up time for new words and definitions. He was a child prodigy who held an important musical post at the age of He was a successful concert pianist, but when his health began to fail he turned to composing.

Even though bereft of hearing at the age of 49, he did not falter in his work. Definitions Your personal test follows through matching. They heaped invective upon him for the intensely emotional quality and Germanic style of his writings. However, it was impossible to besmirch his talents for long, and he was soon one of the most popular composers in Europe. He produced voluminous varieties of compositions. Today, in retrospect, his originality is appreciated, and he is placed among the top romantic composers. Sample Sentences Complete the following sentences with the new words. Definitions Study the paragraph and sample sentences for the meanings.

He had an extremely lofty opinion of himself and his talents. He was not noted for his humility. Along with this quality, Brahms was known for his pungent sense of humor. While his closest friends could accept his biting jokes, others found him difficult to warm up to. Brahms was an inveterate stay-at-home. Cambridge University conferred an honorary degree upon him, but he was adamant about staying at home and did not go to receive the honor. Definitions Make the new words yours through the match-ups. Review the paragraph, sample sentence, definition, and then write your own sentence using the word.

In the year was a year of record high temperatures across the United States. The cause of this problem is complex. There are many proposed explanations, from an increase of population to the greenhouse effect. If, in fact, temperatures are continuing to rise as a result of human activity, there should be an search for the causes and the cures. Scientists are looking into even the most aspects of modern society to determine what might be the long-range effects of our activities.

They hope that investigations will in a program to change the harmful ways we contribute to a dangerous trend. We should not in our efforts to avoid such disasters. There is the bedlam caused by the roaring motors that move the car from a standing start to miles an hour in eight seconds. One is shaken by the cacophony of the brakes, larger than the wheels and producing during the course of a mile race enough heat to warm an eight-room house through a hard winter. The driver needs to be on the alert to exploit any mistake by an opponent, and he must be constantly aware of the propinquity of sudden death.

All of this makes car racing one of the most demanding games of all. How was your recall today? Did you spot vulnerable as a reintroduced word? Sample Sentences Use the new words in the sentences. Definitions Match your new words to their definitions. The creative individual is usually one who is dissatisfied with things as they are; he wants to bring something new into the world—to make it a different place.

There is no infallible way to identify a potentially creative person. The speed-up in the sciences has forced schools and industry to seek a panacea for the shortages that they face. The need to discover and develop the creative person has been the source of much study. The slow rhythm of life is even seen in the barges on the canals and the bicycles on the roads. These people are moved by strong feelings that are not compatible with the serenity of the world around them. Sample Sentences Pay attention to the fine differences in meaning. There soon developed an irrational demand for new species. In their avarice, speculators bought and sold the same tulip ten times in one day. The entire Dutch population suffered from the craze.

There was an insatiable desire for each new color or shape. At one point a man purchased a house for three bulbs! With the moribund tulip market came financial disaster to thousands of people. Sample Sentences Use the new words for the following sentences. The weekly review enables you to isolate the word and its many meanings. In this way you can reinforce your understanding and word power.

At this point you have learned almost words. Keep up the good work. Then compose sentences using each word both ways. Clues 2nd Day 3rd Day 1st Day 4th Day 2nd Day Read My Lips For many years it has been the goal of computer specialists to perfect a machine that would understand human speech. The problem is that the speaker has to be alone and in a quiet room. In the of a special room, the computer works well. Now, math wizards are trying to develop a computer that will read lips despite any surrounding. While some of us think it to believe that a computer can read lips, the experiments go on.

And there has been some success. Progress in all aspects of computer science has been so remarkable that we hesitate to rule out any possibility. There is one rule about the world of computers: the seemingly impossible gets done more quickly than we ever imagined. This sport allows the speedy and lithe athlete to join with the slower and obese one in a team effort. The skills and strengths of many men are welded together so that one team may work as a unit to gain mastery over its opponent. The knowledgeable adherent of a team can follow action covering many parts of the playing field at the same time. He is in a state of bliss when his team executes a movement to perfection. However, there is no one more pathetic than the same fan when the opposition functions to equal perfection.

A spirited cheer from the stands often gives the player on the field a reason to try even harder. Cheer leaders exhort the fans, who may be in a state of apathy because their team is losing, to spur on the team. In particularly close games between rivals of long standing, feelings begin to run high, and from time to time a fracas may break out in the stands. While the teams compete below, the fan who is a bit inebriated may seek out a personal adversary. Sample Sentences Complete the sentences with the new words.

However, some of the spirit, the gusto, is missing when one watches a game on a small screen away from the actual scene of the contest. Also, the viewer is constantly exposed to a garrulous group of announcers who continue to chatter in an endless way throughout the afternoon. Should the game be a dull one, the announcers discuss the most banal bits of information. One day each week is set aside for college football, and another for the professional brand. Most fans enjoy both varieties. The atypical fan will watch only his home team play; however, enthusiasts will continue to view the most nondescript contests involving teams that have no connection with their own town or school. Public interest in football grows each year, while interest in other sports may be on the wane.

Sample Sentences Complete these sentences with the new words. Right now. Then, write a sentence using the word correctly. Every four years the experts try to analyze the reasons for voter. This, after months of political campaigning, including televised debates, is a situation. No matter how hard the candidates woo the voters, the end results are often disappointing. Are the voters so that they would rather stay home watching television than cast a ballot?

Does the voter feel that the candidates are stating one after another and is therefore turned off? The right to vote is so precious that revolutions have taken place where it has been denied. The civil rights struggles of the past were sparked by those who had been denied this right. The greatest of democracy in this country is said to be the failure of citizen participation in the election process. In his book about life on the Mississippi, Twain recalls the idyllic times when man was not in such a great rush to get from one place to another.

One chapter deals with the races conducted between the swiftest of the boats. When a race was set, the excitement would galvanize activity along the river. Captains went to extremes to lighten their boats. Twain writes of one captain who scraped the paint from the gaudy figure that hung between the chimneys of his steamer. Roe, to pass. Mark Twain wrote in a jocose manner about the races his steamer had with islands and rafts. Mark Twain once held that high position. He writes that he felt at the zenith of his life at that time.

The river pilot issued peremptory commands as absolute monarch. The captain was powerless to interfere. One has to do with a wealthy cattle man who was approached by three gamblers. The cattle farmer had let it be known that he had a great deal of money, and the gamblers were trying to wheedle him into a card game. He protested that he knew nothing about cards. His rustic appearance confirmed that fact. On the last night before landing the three gamblers got him drunk. When the first hand was dealt, a jubilant expression came over his face. The betting became furious. All of the proper decorum was put aside, and ten thousand dollars soon lay on the table. With the last wager one of the gamblers showed a hand of four kings.

His partner was to have dealt the sucker a hand of four queens. It is the natural method for seeing new words. Your ability to master words as they appear in normal situations should carry over to your learning many other words as you read. Achilles heel u. Learn the words you have missed. Make them as much a part of your vocabulary as the other words you knew correctly. Clues 1st Day 1st Day 3rd Day 2nd Day 2nd Day The Environmental Society A great deal of controversy surrounds the efforts of environmentalists to protect rare species of animals and birds from becoming. In order to save these creatures from destruction stemming from a loss of forests or water pollution, environmentalists try to large numbers of people to pressure politicians into passing conservation legislation.

Often, however, these proposed laws are thought to be a burden placed upon business, resulting in a loss of employment. In the 21st century, the energy and food requirements of an increasing population are at odds with those who would set aside land for birds or animals. There is a great temptation to the motives of environmental advocates. It will take people of good will and to resolve the many difficulties that lie ahead. It is not a heresy to our democratic beliefs to state that pressure groups play an important part in our lives.

While propaganda has the ostensible purpose of informing the public, the most fervid propagandists use methods that must be examined by the thoughtful citizen. Sample Sentences Use care. The words have many meanings. Definitions Study the fine differences. Be sure how to use them. As the quantity of propaganda becomes greater, ideas are presented in more strident tones in order to overcome the increased competition. The concomitant situation that develops with the stepped-up propaganda is one in which the individual retreats into a state of lassitude. It has the deleterious result of reducing its efficacy upon the individuals or groups who were its objective. In a dictatorship there is no competing propaganda. They often have many others. Look up the word incumbent for a good example.

Always keep in mind that the use of the word, its context, determines its meaning. Used as a noun, a word has a different meaning than when it is used as an adjective or a verb. First, master the words as they appear in the daily stories. Next, look up other meanings in your dictionary. Try writing sentences with the additional meanings. Fortune tellers continue to attract gullible customers, and horoscopes are examined daily to see if there is something to worry about in the day ahead. One specialist who seems to have found a way to predict something of our future is the palm reader. The longer the line, the older the person lived to be. However, there are scientists who with believers in this apparent connection.

Length of line is a of length of life, not the reverse, say scientists. The five psychosexual stages are the oral , the anal , the phallic , the latent , and the genital. Being unsatisfied at any particular stage can result in fixation. Sigmund Freud proposed that if the child experienced frustration at any of the psychosexual developmental stages, they would experience anxiety that would persist into adulthood as a neurosis , a functional mental disorder. Sigmund Freud — observed that during the predictable stages of early childhood development, the child's behavior is oriented towards certain parts of their body, e.

He argued that adult neurosis functional mental disorder often is rooted in childhood sexuality, and consequently suggested that neurotic adult behaviors are manifestations of childhood sexual fantasy and desire. That is because human beings are born " polymorphous perverse ", infants can derive sexual pleasure from any part of their bodies, and that socialization directs the instinctual libidinal drives into adult heterosexuality.

Sexual infantilism : in pursuing and satisfying their libido sexual drive , the child might experience failure parental and societal disapproval and thus might associate anxiety with the given erogenous zone. To avoid anxiety, the child becomes fixated , preoccupied with the psychologic themes related to the erogenous zone in question. The fixation persists into adulthood and underlies the personality and psychopathology of the individual. It may manifest as mental ailments such as neurosis , hysteria , female hysteria , or personality disorder. The first stage of psychosexual development is the oral stage , spanning from birth until the age of one year, wherein the infant's mouth is the focus of libidinal gratification derived from the pleasure of feeding at the mother's breast, and from the oral exploration of their environment, i.

The id dominates, because neither the ego nor the super ego is yet fully developed, and, since the infant has no personality identity , every action is based upon the pleasure principle. Nonetheless, the infantile ego is forming during the oral stage; two factors contribute to its formation: i in developing a body image , they are discrete from the external world, e. Weaning is the key experience in the infant's oral stage of psychosexual development, their first feeling of loss consequent to losing the physical intimacy of feeding at mother's breast. Yet, weaning increases the infant's self-awareness that they do not control the environment, and thus learns of delayed gratification , which leads to the formation of the capacities for independence awareness of the limits of the self and trust behaviors leading to gratification.

Yet, thwarting of the oral-stage — too much or too little gratification of desire — might lead to an oral-stage fixation , characterized by passivity, gullibility, immaturity, unrealistic optimism , which is manifested in a manipulative personality consequent to ego malformation. In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that they do not control the environment, and that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality. In the case of too little gratification, the infant might become passive upon learning that gratification is not forthcoming, despite having produced the gratifying behavior. The second stage of psychosexual development is the anal stage , spanning from the age of eighteen months to three years, wherein the infant's erogenous zone changes from the mouth the upper digestive tract to the anus the lower digestive tract , while the ego formation continues.

Toilet training is the child's key anal-stage experience, occurring at about the age of two years, and results in conflict between the id demanding immediate gratification and the ego demanding delayed gratification in eliminating bodily wastes, and handling related activities e. The style of parenting influences the resolution of the id—ego conflict, which can be either gradual and psychologically uneventful, or which can be sudden and psychologically traumatic. The ideal resolution of the id—ego conflict is in the child's adjusting to moderate parental demands that teach the value and importance of physical cleanliness and environmental order, thus producing a self-controlled adult.

Yet, if the parents make immoderate demands of the child, by over-emphasizing toilet training, it might lead to the development of a compulsive personality , a person too concerned with neatness and order. If the child obeys the id, and the parents yield, they might develop a self-indulgent personality characterized by personal slovenliness and environmental disorder. If the parents respond to that, the child must comply, but might develop a weak sense of self , because it was the parents' will, and not the child's ego, which controlled the toilet training.

The third stage of psychosexual development is the phallic stage , spanning the ages of three to six years, wherein the child's genitalia are their primary erogenous zone. It is in this third infantile development stage that children become aware of their bodies, the bodies of other children, and the bodies of their parents; they gratify physical curiosity by undressing and exploring each other and their genitals, and so learn the physical sexual differences between "male" and "female" and the gender differences between "boy" and "girl". In the phallic stage, a boy's decisive psychosexual experience is the Oedipus complex , his son—father competition for possession of mother.

This psychological complex derives from the 5th-century BC Greek mythologic character Oedipus , who unwittingly killed his father, Laius , and sexually possessed his mother, Jocasta. Analogously, in the phallic stage, a girl's decisive psychosexual experience is the Electra complex , her daughter—mother competition for psychosexual possession of father. This psychological complex derives from the 5th-century BC Greek mythologic character Electra , who plotted matricidal revenge with Orestes , her brother, against Clytemnestra , their mother, and Aegisthus , their stepfather, for their murder of Agamemnon , their father, cf. Electra , by Sophocles. Initially, Freud equally applied the Oedipus complex to the psychosexual development of boys and girls, but later developed the female aspects of the theory as the feminine Oedipus attitude and the negative Oedipus complex ; [10] yet, it was his student—collaborator, Carl Jung , who coined the term Electra complex in Oedipus : Despite mother being the parent who primarily gratifies the child's desires, the child begins forming a discrete sexual identity — "boy", "girl" — that alters the dynamics of the parent and child relationship; the parents become the focus of infantile libidinal energy.

The boy focuses his libido sexual desire upon his mother, and focuses jealousy and emotional rivalry against his father — because it is he who sleeps with mother. To facilitate uniting him with his mother, the boy's id wants to kill father as did Oedipus , but the ego, pragmatically based upon the reality principle , knows that the father is the stronger of the two males competing to possess the one female. Nevertheless, the boy remains ambivalent about his father's place in the family, which is manifested as fear of castration by the physically greater father; the fear is an irrational, subconscious manifestation of the infantile Id.

Electra : Whereas boys develop castration anxiety , girls develop penis envy that is rooted in anatomic fact: without a penis, she cannot sexually possess mother, as the infantile id demands. As a result, the girl redirects her desire for sexual union upon father; thus, she progresses towards heterosexual femininity that culminates in bearing a child who replaces the absent penis. Moreover, after the phallic stage, the girl's psychosexual development includes transferring her primary erogenous zone from the infantile clitoris to the adult vagina.

Freud thus considered a girl's Oedipal conflict to be more emotionally intense than that of a boy, potentially resulting in a submissive woman of insecure personality. Psychologist Karen Horney has disputed this theory, calling it inaccurate and demeaning to women. She proposed that, in fact men experience feelings of inferiority because they cannot give birth to children, a concept she referred to as womb envy. Psychologic defense : In both sexes, defense mechanisms provide transitory resolutions of the conflict between the drives of the Id and the drives of the Ego.

The first defense mechanism is repression , the blocking of memories, emotional impulses, and ideas from the conscious mind; yet it does not resolve the Id—Ego conflict. The second defense mechanism is Identification , by which the child incorporates, to their ego, the personality characteristics of the same-sex parent; in so adapting, the boy diminishes his castration anxiety , because his likeness to father protects him from father's wrath as a rival for mother; by so adapting, the girl facilitates identifying with mother, who understands that, in being females, neither of them possesses a penis, and thus they are not antagonists. In a boy, a phallic-stage fixation might lead him to become an aggressive, over-ambitious, vain man. Therefore, the satisfactory parental handling and resolution of the Oedipus complex and of the Electra complex are most important in developing the infantile super-ego, because, by identifying with a parent, the child internalizes morality , thereby, choosing to comply with societal rules, rather than having to reflexively comply in fear of punishment.

The fourth stage of psychosexual development is the latency stage that spans from the age of six years until puberty , wherein the child consolidates the character habits they developed in the three earlier stages of psychologic and sexual development. Whether or not the child has successfully resolved the Oedipal conflict , the instinctual drives of the id are inaccessible to the Ego, because their defense mechanisms repressed them during the phallic stage. Hence, because said drives are latent hidden and gratification is delayed — unlike during the preceding oral, anal, and phallic stages — the child must derive the pleasure of gratification from secondary process-thinking that directs the libidinal drives towards external activities, such as schooling, friendships, hobbies, etc.

Any neuroses established during the fourth, latent stage, of psychosexual development might derive from the inadequate resolution either of the Oedipus conflict or of the Ego's failure to direct their energies towards socially acceptable activities. The fifth stage of psychosexual development is the genital stage that spans puberty through adult life, and thus represents most of a person's life; its purpose is the psychological detachment and independence from the parents.

The genital stage affords the person the ability to confront and resolve their remaining psychosexual childhood conflicts. As in the phallic stage, the genital stage is centered upon the genitalia, but the sexuality is consensual and adult, rather than solitary and infantile. The psychological difference between the phallic and genital stages is that the ego is established in the latter; the person's concern shifts from primary-drive gratification instinct to applying secondary process-thinking to gratify desire symbolically and intellectually by means of friendships, a love relationship, family and adult responsibility. A usual criticism of the scientific experimental validity of the Freudian psychology theory of human psychosexual development is that Sigmund Freud — was personally fixated upon human sexuality ; therefore, he favored defining human development with a normative theory of psychologic and sexual development.

In Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-year-old Boy , the case study of the boy " Little Hans " Herbert Graf, —73 who was afflicted with equinophobia , the relation between Hans's fears - of horses and of father - derived from external factors such as the birth of his sister, and internal factors like the desire of the infantile id to replace father as companion to mother, as well as guilt for enjoying the masturbation normal to a boy of his age.

Moreover, his admitting to wanting to procreate with mother was considered proof of the boy's sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent; he was a heterosexual male. Yet, the boy Hans was unable to relate fearing horses to fearing his father. The psychoanalyst Freud noted that "Hans had to be told many things that he could not say himself" and that "he had to be presented with thoughts, which he had, so far, shown no signs of possessing". Many Freud critics believe the memories and fantasies of childhood seduction Freud reported, were not real memories, but were constructs that Freud created and forced upon his patients.

Contemporaneously, Sigmund Freud's psychosexual development theory is criticized as sexist , because it was informed with his introspection self-analysis. To integrate the female libido sexual desire to psychosexual development, he proposed that girls develop " penis envy ". In response, the German Neo-Freudian psychoanalyst Karen Horney , counter-proposed that girls instead develop " Power envy ", rather than penis envy. She further proposed the concept of " womb and vagina envy ", the male's envy of the female ability to bear children; yet, contemporary formulations further develop said envy from the biologic child-bearing to the psychologic nurturance , envy of women's perceived right to be the kind parent.

Contemporary criticism also questions the universality of the Freudian theory of personality Id, Ego, Super-ego discussed in the essay On Narcissism , wherein he said that "it is impossible to suppose that a unity, comparable to the ego can exist in the individual from the very start". Contemporary cultural considerations have questioned the normative presumptions of the Freudian psychodynamic perspective that posits the son—father conflict of the Oedipal complex as universal and essential to human psychologic development.

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