⌛ The Negative Consequences Of British Colonialism In India

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The Negative Consequences Of British Colonialism In India



General Studies — 4 Topic: Contributions warning jenny joseph moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world. Key The Negative Consequences Of British Colonialism In India of the The Negative Consequences Of British Colonialism In India To write about the impact created by the revolt of Gapes, Mike This entry will use imperialism as a broad term that refers to economic, Constraint Induced Movement Therapy, political domination that is achieved The Negative Consequences Of British Colonialism In India significant permanent European settlement. To be The Negative Consequences Of British Colonialism In India, you must The Negative Consequences Of British Colonialism In India self-determined, which is to say that you must be able to control your own destiny in your own interests. To remedy the situation, a transparent consultation The Negative Consequences Of British Colonialism In India must be initiated, to design a law on public participation in law and policy-making and to regulate The Negative Consequences Of British Colonialism In India Nafta Pros And Cons advocacy in an equitable manner. Macmillan The Different Types of Logistics Explained Company. Lightfoot highlights the revolutionary potential of international movements to enable a collective examples of ansoff matrix where local struggles may strategically coalesce The Negative Consequences Of British Colonialism In India a global platform.

Positive \u0026 Negative Impacts of Imperialism in India

The colonists commit crimes with impunity against your people. Efforts at resistance are met with brutal reprisal, sometimes massacre. The more vividly and accurately you manage to conjure what this scenario would actually look like, the more horrified you will be by the very idea of colonialism. One would think this revulsion was now universally shared. But that is far from being the case.

The majority of British people are still proud of colonialism and the British Empire. Being pro-colonial is no bar to success in academia; Harvard historian Niall Ferguson has long defended the British Empire as a force for good in the world. But it appears to be sincere. This has caused terrible consequences, because postcolonial governments have hurt their people by attempting to destroy beneficial colonial institutions. Colonialism was legitimate because it helped people and many populations were willing to tolerate it. Anti-colonial arguments are often incoherent, blaming colonial governments for all ills rather than examining what would have occurred in the absence of those governments.

And colonialism should cease to be a dirty word; in fact, it should be re-instituted, because many developing countries are incapable of self-government. But the thrust of the article is that a commitment to factual rigor requires an unbiased assessment of colonialism, and that such an assessment will reveal colonialism to be a good thing for the colonized. Gilley says he is simply asking for an unbiased assessment of the facts, that he just wants us to take off our ideological blinders and examine colonialism from an empirical perspective. But this is not what he has done.

Instead of evaluating the colonial record empirically, he has distorted that record, concealing evidence of gross crimes against humanity. The result is not only unscholarly, but is morally tantamount to Holocaust denial. He quotes his standard of measurement:. We should observe here that this is a terrible way of evaluating colonialism. By the way, I think even committed opponents of colonialism may sometimes fall into this trap. Furthermore, nobody should be surprised if performance on certain economic and political metrics did end up declining in the postcolonial era, since reconstructing a functioning country after decades or centuries of subjugation is… not easily done.

Belgian King Leopold created possibly the most infamous colonial regime in history. Much of the death toll was the result of killing, pure and simple. Value addition: There were many causes which led to the collapse of this mighty rebellion. Narrow territorial base: The revolt of had limited territorial spread. It was not widespread and remained confined to North and Central India only.

Even in the north, Kashmir, Punjab, Sind and Rajputana kept away from the rebels. Lack of leadership: No national leader emerged to coordinate the movement and give it purpose and direction. Infights: Their leaders were suspicious and jealous of each other and often indulged in petty quarrels. The Begam of Awadh, for example, quarrelled with Maulvi Ahmdullah, and the Mughal princes with the sepoy-generals. Thus, selfishness and narrow perspective of the leaders suppressed the strength of the revolt and prevented its consolidation. No concept of Modern nationalism: There were diverse elements among the rebels with different ideology, plan and motive.

Most of the leaders of the revolt were fighting for personal gains and lack a coherent idea for modern India. Modern nationalism had not yet evolved in India. In fact, it was a concept unknown to the people. Lack of unified vision and ideology: They had no forward-looking plan in mind. For example, Rani Lakshmi Bai fought to regain Jhansi, which she had lost as a result of the British policy of Doctrine of lapse while Nana Saheb and Tantya Tope tried to re-establish the Maratha power.

Lack of unity: No broad-based unity emerged among the Indian people during the rebel. While sepoys of the Bengal army were revolting, some soldiers in Punjab fought on the side of the British to crush these rebellions. Fissures in the society: The modern educated Indians also did not support the revolt because, in their view, the revolt was backwards-looking. They believed mistakenly that the British would lead the country towards modernisation.

Lack of proper arms and equipment: The rebels were short of weapons and finances. Whatever few weapons existed, were old and outdated. In many areas, rebels fought with swords and spears which were no match for the sophisticated and modern weapons of the British. Key Demand of the question: To write about the evolution of education in India under the colonial rule and its impact. Directive word: Discuss — This is an all-encompassing directive — you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them.

Conclusion: Conclude by mentioning the contribution of modern education in rise of nationalism in India. Body Evolution of the development of Education in India under the Colonial rule Charter Act of The Charter Act incorporated the principle of encouraging learned Indians and promoting the knowledge of modern sciences in the country. The Act directed the Company to spend the sum of one lakh of rupees for the purpose. But even this petty amount was not made available by the Company authorities till Oriental- Anglicist conundrum For years a great controversy raged in the country on the question of the direction that this expenditure should take. While one section of opinion wanted it to be spent exclusively for the promotion of modern Western studies , others desired that, while Western sciences and literature should be taught to prepare students to take up jobs, emphasis should be placed on the expansion of traditional Indian learning.

Even among those who wanted to spread Western learning, differences arose on the question of the medium of instruction to be adopted in modern schools and colleges. Some recommended the use of Indian languages, called vernaculars at the time, for the purpose, while others advocated the use of English. The government soon made English as the medium of instruction in its schools and colleges and opened a few English schools and colleges instead of a large number of elementary schools, thus neglecting mass education.

Since the allocated funds could educate only a handful of Indians, it was decided to spend the money in educating a few persons from the upper and middle classes who were expected to assume the task of educating the masses and spreading modern ideas among them. It laid down that the education imparted in government institutions should be secular and recommended a system of grants-in-aid to encourage private enterprise Hunter Education Commission Earlier schemes had neglected primary and secondary education. The Hunter Commission mostly confined its recommendations to primary and secondary education. Indian Universities Act, In , Raleigh Commission was set up to go into conditions and prospects of universities in India and to suggest measures for improvement in their constitution and working.

The commission precluded from reporting on primary or secondary education. Based on its recommendations, the Indian Universities Act was passed in Government Resolution on Education Policy, In its Resolution on Education Policy, the government refused to take up the responsibility of compulsory education. However, it accepted the policy of removal of illiteracy and urged provincial governments to take early steps to provide free elementary education to the poorer and more backward sections. Saddler University Commission The commission was set up to study and report on problems of Calcutta University. It held the view that, for the improvement of university education, improvement of secondary education was a necessary pre-condition. Education Under Dyarchy Under Montagu-Chelmsford reforms education was shifted to provincial ministries and the government stopped taking direct interest in educational matters, while government grants, liberally sanctioned since , were now stopped.

Hartog Committee, The Hartog Committee was set up to report on development of education. It emphasised on primary education but there need be no hasty expansion or compulsion in education. The impact of introducing modern education in India by the British Positive impacts: Indians could develop modernity, secularism, democratic attitudes and rationality along with Nationalistic ideals. The impetus was received for the local literature and languages. This facilitated unity in thinking process among the educated class. Periodicals started emerging which scrutinized the policies and working of the government which in turn enabled the Indians to have critical opinions on various issues.

New social and religious reformation movements The thoughts of thinkers like S. Mill, Rousseau and Montesquieu brought fresh thinking in the mind of educated youth of India. The advancements in education brought by the British have actually led to the shaping of the current education system in place and also has helped change the approach and outlook of Indians over the years. Negative impacts: It created a division between English educated Indians and the rest of Indians. Technology and natural science were neglected and without such knowledge the intellectual advancement as well as economic development of a country was hampered The basic purpose of the education policy was inseparable from the political interests of the colonial government.

Indigenous literature and thought were ignored. British textbooks glorified the British Administration and philosophy. Conclusion The British did loot India of its wealth but they also did bring various technical advancements to the Indian society. Key Demand of the question: To differentiate between El-Nino and La-Nina, write its impact and to comment on the efficacy of prediction models in mitigating its impact.

Directive word: Compare and contrast — provide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. Body: In the first part, bring out the difference between El-Nino and La-Nina on the basis of their occurrence, mechanism, frequency of occurrence, duration, conditions required to occur etc. Conclusion: Pass a judgement as to if better information via prediction model can lead to better mitigation of adverse effects.

Body Differences: Similarities: They both originate in the same equatorial location — eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean , so in this way they are similar. These systems typically last about one to two years, with the cycle alternating every three to seven years. Both events are related to extreme weather events. Depending on which cycle occurs and when , this can mean either droughts or flooding. How El-Nino impact Indian Monsoon El Nino, characterized by warming of surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean, is associated with lower than normal monsoon rainfall in India. El Nino affects the flow of moisture-bearing winds from the cooler oceans towards India , negatively impact the summer south-west monsoon.

The rain-fed kharif crops are heavily dependent on the monsoon and the quantity of rainfall determines agricultural production. Researchers also believe that even the location of the warming in the Pacific may possibly have an influence on the monsoon. Understanding the main mechanisms of ENSO has given us the ability to operationally forecast it a season or more ahead. They noticed sea-surface temperature anomalies at CO2-doubling conditions and it became robust at CO2 quadrupling. Machine Learning has helped in the skill enhancement of forecasts for weather and particular climate phenomena, such as the ENSO in the tropical Pacific. Conclusion Just as for weather forecasts, the future evolution of the atmosphere can be predicted by knowing the observed atmosphere and ocean state at a given time and applying the equations of motion.

Key Demand of the question: Directive word: Evaluate — When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence. Structure of the answer: Introduction: Begin by writing about the importance of parliamentary debates and discussion to our democracy. Body: Further elaborate how these debates and deliberations are enriching for our democracy. Conclusion: Conclude with a way forward. Introduction Chief Justice of India N.

Debates, discussions and deliberations: Cornerstone of parliamentary democracy Many rely on the volume of Bills passed by Parliament in a session as a measure of its efficiency. However, this measure is flawed as it does not account for what is lost when efficiency is achieved by passing laws without adequate notice and deliberation. Most, if not all, of these laws create burdensome obligations on persons and often affect their fundamental rights. Legislators, as representatives of the people, are expected to exercise a duty of care before casting their vote. This entails due deliberation about the implications of the law, posing amendments and questions to the concerned Minister, and requiring expert evidence through standing committees.

Deliberation in Parliament ensures that the views of persons who are adversely affected by a law are heard and actively engaged with. Rushed law-making, rendering Parliament a rubber stamp, s acrifices two core ideals of a constitutional democracy, namely, equal participation and respect for fundamental rights. Legislative process in India: Issues The proportion of Bills being referred to parliamentary committees for study and consultation has drastically fallen in the current Lok Sabha.

As per an analysis, between June and May , Bills were introduced out of which saw no prior consultations. As per another analysis, the proportion of Bills being referred to parliamentary committees for study and consultation has drastically fallen from 60 per cent in the 14th Lok Sabha LS , 71 per cent in the 15th LS, 27 per cent in the 16th LS to just 11 per cent so far in the current LS.

One such Bill, reorganising the e rstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir, saw an unprecedented breakdown of all channels of consultation, within and outside the Parliament. Another such Bill r edefining the relationship between the Lieutenant Governor of Delhi and elected Chief Minister of Delhi saw no consultation whatsoever with either the people of Delhi or the elected legislature; in other words, the affected parties were denied the opportunity to participate in making the law.

Even where consultation has been carried out, it has left much to be desired. Last year, amidst the pandemic, the government proposed drastic changes to the Environment Impact Assessment procedures. Concerned citizens had to approach the courts to get the deadline for the consultation extended and to get the government to make the notification available in all scheduled languages so that everyone could meaningfully participate in the consultation. The policy also provides that all such information should be put in the public domain for a minimum period of 30 days and the feedback received should also be published on the website of the concerned ministry or department.

The policy also provides that the summary of this pre-legislative process should be made available to any Parliamentary standing committee to which the subsequent Bill may be referred. Thus, the policy envisaged a consultation while the Bill is being drafted and a study and consultation by a Parliamentary committee after it is introduced in Parliament. Conclusion In a country governed by the rule of law and a liberal Constitution providing for representation of marginalised sections in law-making positions, it is not difficult to argue that a closed and exclusive access to law-making processes is antithetical to the justice — social, economic and political — that our Constitution guarantees to everyone.

General Studies — 3 Topic: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country 5. Key Demand of the question: To write about plethora of benefits offered by Millet production with respect to tackling climate change and food security. Directive word: Elaborate — Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. Structure of the answer: Introduction: Begin by mentioning giving context that the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution declaring as the International Year of Millets.

Body: Mention about the low demand of water and soil fertility needs to cultivate millets and millets as a nutritional package with whole lot of vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids etc. Conclusion: Conclude by saying millets are the way forward in the food consumption area as it addresses the twin challenge of both nutritional security as well as climate change. Body: Millets — a core component in climate smart agriculture: Millets help in reducing the atmospheric CO2 and thus contribute in mitigating the climate change.

They have a good ability to sequester carbon and so help climate adaptation , particularly the global projection of increased methane emission from rice fields. Being hardy crops, they can withstand extreme temperatures, floods and droughts. They also help mitigate the effects of climate change through their low carbon footprint of 3,kilogram equivalent of carbon dioxide per hectare, as compared to wheat and rice, with 3,kg and 3,kg, respectively, on the same measure.

Most bio-ethanol in India is produced using sugar molasses and maize. However, a study conducted among farmers in Madhya Pradesh showed that bio-ethanol can be created using sorghum jowar and pearl millet bajra , and that this fuel could bring down carbon emissions by about half. Contemporary research developments have shed light on the influence of millets on energy optimization, climate resilience and ecosystem restoration. The manner in which British forces were rapidly defeated in the Far East irreversibly harmed Britain's standing and prestige as an imperial power, [] [] including, particularly, the Fall of Singapore , which had previously been hailed as an impregnable fortress and the eastern equivalent of Gibraltar.

Though Britain and the empire emerged victorious from the Second World War, the effects of the conflict were profound, both at home and abroad. Much of Europe, a continent that had dominated the world for several centuries, was in ruins, and host to the armies of the United States and the Soviet Union, who now held the balance of global power. In principle, both nations were opposed to European colonialism.

In practice, American anti-communism prevailed over anti-imperialism , and therefore the United States supported the continued existence of the British Empire to keep Communist expansion in check. Their priorities changed to maintaining an extensive zone of British influence [] and ensuring that stable, non-Communist governments were established in former colonies.

In this context, while other European powers such as France and Portugal [] waged costly and unsuccessful wars to keep their empires intact, Britain generally adopted a policy of peaceful disengagement from its colonies. In reality, this was rarely peaceable or altruistic. Between and , the number of people under British rule outside the UK itself fell from million to 5 million, 3 million of whom were in Hong Kong. The pro-decolonisation Labour government, elected at the general election and led by Clement Attlee , moved quickly to tackle the most pressing issue facing the empire: Indian independence.

Congress favoured a unified secular Indian state, whereas the League, fearing domination by the Hindu majority, desired a separate Islamic state for Muslim-majority regions. Increasing civil unrest and the mutiny of the Royal Indian Navy during led Attlee to promise independence no later than 30 June When the urgency of the situation and risk of civil war became apparent, the newly appointed and last Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten , hastily brought forward the date to 15 August Burma, which had been administered as part of the British Raj, and Sri Lanka gained their independence the following year in The British Mandate in Palestine, where an Arab majority lived alongside a Jewish minority, presented the British with a similar problem to that of India.

Frustrated by the intractability of the problem, attacks by Jewish paramilitary organisations and the increasing cost of maintaining its military presence, Britain announced in that it would withdraw in and leave the matter to the United Nations to solve. It was immediately followed by the outbreak of a civil war between the Arabs and Jews of Palestine, and British forces withdrew amid the fighting. The British Mandate for Palestine officially terminated at midnight on 15 May as the State of Israel declared independence and the Arab-Israeli War broke out, during which the territory of the former Mandate was partitioned between Israel and the surrounding Arab states.

Amid the fighting, British forces continued to withdraw from Israel, with the last British troops departing from Haifa on 30 June Following the surrender of Japan in the Second World War, anti-Japanese resistance movements in Malaya turned their attention towards the British, who had moved to quickly retake control of the colony, valuing it as a source of rubber and tin. In , the 11 states of the federation together with Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo joined to form Malaysia , but in Chinese-majority Singapore was expelled from the union following tensions between the Malay and Chinese populations and became an independent city-state. In , the Conservative Party returned to power in Britain, under the leadership of Winston Churchill. Churchill and the Conservatives believed that Britain's position as a world power relied on the continued existence of the empire, with the base at the Suez Canal allowing Britain to maintain its pre-eminent position in the Middle East in spite of the loss of India.

Churchill could not ignore Gamal Abdul Nasser 's new revolutionary government of Egypt that had taken power in , and the following year it was agreed that British troops would withdraw from the Suez Canal zone and that Sudan would be granted self-determination by , with independence to follow. In July , Nasser unilaterally nationalised the Suez Canal. The response of Anthony Eden , who had succeeded Churchill as Prime Minister, was to collude with France to engineer an Israeli attack on Egypt that would give Britain and France an excuse to intervene militarily and retake the canal.

Eisenhower by his lack of consultation, and Eisenhower refused to back the invasion. Eisenhower applied financial leverage by threatening to sell US reserves of the British pound and thereby precipitate a collapse of the British currency. The Suez Crisis very publicly exposed Britain's limitations to the world and confirmed Britain's decline on the world stage and its end as a first-rate power, [] [] demonstrating that henceforth it could no longer act without at least the acquiescence, if not the full support, of the United States. On 16 January , a few weeks after the devaluation of the pound , Prime Minister Harold Wilson and his Defence Secretary Denis Healey announced that British troops would be withdrawn from major military bases East of Suez , which included the ones in the Middle East, and primarily from Malaysia and Singapore by the end of , instead of as earlier planned.

Macmillan gave a speech in Cape Town , South Africa in February where he spoke of "the wind of change blowing through this continent". Britain's remaining colonies in Africa, except for self-governing Southern Rhodesia , were all granted independence by British withdrawal from the southern and eastern parts of Africa was not a peaceful process. Kenyan independence was preceded by the eight-year Mau Mau uprising , in which tens of thousands of suspected rebels were interned by the colonial government in detention camps.

The UK retained the military bases of Akrotiri and Dhekelia as sovereign base areas. The Mediterranean colony of Malta was amicably granted independence from the UK in and became the country of Malta , though the idea had been raised in of integration with Britain. Most of the UK's Caribbean territories achieved independence after the departure in and of Jamaica and Trinidad from the West Indies Federation , established in in an attempt to unite the British Caribbean colonies under one government, but which collapsed following the loss of its two largest members. Barbados achieved independence in and the remainder of the eastern Caribbean islands, including the Bahamas , in the s and s, [] but Anguilla and the Turks and Caicos Islands opted to revert to British rule after they had already started on the path to independence.

Britain's last colony on the American mainland, British Honduras , became a self-governing colony in and was renamed Belize in , achieving full independence in A dispute with Guatemala over claims to Belize was left unresolved. British territories in the Pacific acquired independence in the s beginning with Fiji in and ending with Vanuatu in Vanuatu's independence was delayed because of political conflict between English and French-speaking communities, as the islands had been jointly administered as a condominium with France. By , aside from a scattering of islands and outposts, the process of decolonisation that had begun after the Second World War was largely complete.

In , Britain's resolve in defending its remaining overseas territories was tested when Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, acting on a long-standing claim that dated back to the Spanish Empire. The s saw Canada, Australia, and New Zealand sever their final constitutional links with Britain. Although granted legislative independence by the Statute of Westminster , vestigial constitutional links had remained in place.

The British Parliament retained the power to amend key Canadian constitutional statutes, meaning that effectively an act of the British Parliament was required to make certain changes to the Canadian Constitution. Although no longer able to pass any laws that would apply as Australian Commonwealth law, the British Parliament retained the power to legislate for the individual Australian states. In , the last legal link between Canada and Britain was severed by the Canada Act , which was passed by the British parliament, formally patriating the Canadian Constitution. The act ended the need for British involvement in changes to the Canadian constitution. On 1 January , Brunei, Britain's last remaining Asian protectorate, was granted independence. In September the Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, travelled to Beijing to negotiate with the Chinese government, on the future of Britain's last major and most populous overseas territory, Hong Kong.

Britain retains sovereignty over 14 territories outside the British Isles. Decades, and in some cases centuries, of British rule and emigration have left their mark on the independent nations that arose from the British Empire. The empire established the use of the English language in regions around the world. Today it is the primary language of up to million people and is spoken by about 1. The British Empire provided refuge for religiously persecuted continental Europeans for hundreds of years. Political boundaries drawn by the British did not always reflect homogeneous ethnicities or religions, contributing to conflicts in formerly colonised areas. The British Empire was responsible for large migrations of peoples.

Tensions remain between the white settler populations of these countries and their indigenous minorities, and between white settler minorities and indigenous majorities in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Settlers in Ireland from Great Britain have left their mark in the form of divided nationalist and unionist communities in Northern Ireland. Millions of people moved to and from British colonies, with large numbers of Indians emigrating to other parts of the empire, such as Malaysia and Fiji, and Chinese people to Malaysia, Singapore and the Caribbean.

In the 19th century, innovation in Britain led to revolutionary changes in manufacturing, the development of factory systems , and the growth of transportation by railway and steam ship. The convention of driving on the left hand side of the road has been retained in much of the former empire. The Westminster system of parliamentary democracy has served as the template for the governments for many former colonies, [] [] and English common law for legal systems. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. States and dominions ruled by the United Kingdom. British Empire. All areas of the world that were ever part of the British Empire.

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