❤❤❤ How Did Sitting Bull Influence America

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How Did Sitting Bull Influence America



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The Battle at Little Bighorn - History

Ancient Egyptian sculpture was closely associated with Egyptian architecture and mostly concerned the temple and the funeral tomb. The temple was built as if it were the tomb or eternal resting-place of a divinity whose statue was hidden within a succession of closed halls, opened to view only for a short time, when the sun or moon or particular star reached a point on the horizon from which their rays shone directly upon the innermost shrine. These divine statues were consulted as oracles, and were seldom of an imposing size. Sculptors were also employed for wall-reliefs, the capitals of columns, colossal figures guarding the pylons, and for long avenues of sphinxes.

The mural illustrations on the temple walls typically depict the piety of the Pharaohs as well as their foreign conquests. Egyptian tombs required the most extensive use of sculpture. In these vaults were placed portrait statues of the deceased King or Queen. In addition, this type of prehistoric sculpture included statues of public functionaries, and scribes, and the groups portraying a man and his wife. The walls of the earlier Egyptian tombs resemble, in effect, an illustrated book of the manners and customs of the population. Illustrative scenes feature activities like hunting, fishing, and agricultural settings; artistic and commercial pursuits, such as the making of statues, or glass, or metal-ware, or the construction of pyramids; women performing domestic chores, or wailing for the dead; boys engaged in sports.

Such reliefs reveal a confident belief in the future as a kind of untroubled extension of the present life. During later periods of Egyptian art , beginning with the tombs of the New Empire, gods appear more prominently in scenes of judgment; indicating less certainty about the happiness of the future state. In addition to depicting the Gods of Egyptian civilization , sculptors also portrayed the minor objects of domestic and daily use; including household furniture with its opulent divans, tables and chests, and all forms of metalwork and jewellery. Items like toilet boxes, mirrors, and spoons were depicted by forms derived from the floral, animal, or human world.

Sacred plants, notably the lotus, were the naturalistic basis for a large and varied class of forms which went on to influence the decorative art of the entire ancient world. In the valley of the Nile grew the sacred acacia and the sycamore, which provided the sculptor with material for statues and sarcophagi, for thrones and other items of industrial art. The hillsides on both banks of the Nile, as far south as Edfou, provided a coarse nummulitic limestone, and beyond Edfou there were extensive quarries of sandstone, both materials being used for sculptural as well as for architectural purposes.

Close to the first cataract one can still see the quarries of red granite used not only for obelisks, but also for huge statues, sphinxes, and sarcophagi. Alabaster was quarried at the ancient town of Alabastron, near the modern village of Assiout. From the mountains of the Arabian desert and the Sinai peninsula came the basalt and diorite employed by the early sculptors, the red porphyry prized especially by the Greeks and Romans, and copper. Even the mud from the river Nile was moulded and baked, and covered with coloured glazes, from the earliest dynasties of Egyptian history. During the same early period we find the Egyptian sculptor handling with great dexterity numerous imported materials, like ebony, ivory, iron, gold and silver. Ivory carving , for instance, was widely practised, and was used in chryselephantine sculpture , for major works.

When Egyptian sculptors wanted to add extra permanence to their sculptures, as, for example, to the statues and sarcophagi of their Pharaoh kings, they used the hardest materials, like basalt, diorite, granite. This hard stone they manipulated with no less skill than they did wood-and ivory and softer stones. The fine details were probably applied with flint instruments. Other implements, made from hardened bronze or iron, were the saw with jewelled teeth, tubular drills of various types, the pointer, and chisel. Statues of hard stone were meticulously polished with crushed sandstone and emery; softer stonework was typically covered with stucco and painted, the pigment being applied in an arbitrary or conventional manner.

Egyptian Statues and Statuettes. Egyptian artists were producing a wide variety of small figures in clay, bone, and ivory, well before the emergence of a formal style of sculpture at the time of the unification of the Two Lands of Egypt. A few, fragile figurines have been found in prehistoric graves. The tradition of making such objects survived right down to the New Kingdom. Bone and ivory were used to make stylized female figures of elaborate workmanship between 4, and 3, BCE. Clay, which was easier to shape, was molded into representations of many species of animals, easy to identify because their characteristics have been captured by acute observation.

See also: Mesopotamian Sculpture c. One of the finest and most complete was found at Abydos, representing an unknown king, depicted in ceremonial costume British Museum, London. He is wearing the tall White Crown of Upper Egypt and a short cloak patterned with lozenges. He strides confidently forward in the pose used for all male standing statues in Dynastic times, left foot in front of right. The quality of the carving is shown in the way in which the robe is wrapped tightly across the rounded shoulders, and the head is thrust forward with determination and strength of purpose. From this period, just preceding the 1st Dynasty, there is evidence that sculptors were making great advances, and were using wood, and stone of various kinds.

This development continued through the Archaic Period, when the first larger types of royal statue were made. Work in metal also made progress; miniature copper statuettes and gold amulets have been found in tombs, while an inscription of the 2nd Dynasty records the making of a royal statue in copper. Egyptian Statues: Artistic Conventions. Egyptian statuary was made to be placed in tombs or temples and was usually intended to be seen from the front.

It was important that the face should look straight ahead, into eternity, and that the body viewed from the front should be vertical and rigid, with all the planes intersecting at right angles. Sometimes variations do occur; large statues for instance were made to look slightly downwards towards the spectator, but examples where the body is made to bend or the head to turn are very rare in formal sculpture. It is usually accepted that the finest craftsmen worked for the king, and set the patterns followed by others who produced sculpture in stone, wood, and metal for his subjects throughout Egypt.

The Old and Middle Kingdoms in particular saw the production of many statues and small figures that were placed in the tombs of quite ordinary people to act as substitutes for the body if it should be destroyed, to provide an eternal abode for the ka. Quality was desirable, but was not particularly important, for as long as the statue was inscribed with the name of the dead person it was identified with him. In fact it was possible to take over a statue by simply altering the inscription and substituting another name. This was done even at the highest level, and kings often usurped statues commissioned by earlier rulers. It was also believed to be possible to destroy the memory of a hated or feared predecessor by hacking the names and titles from his monuments.

Most of the ka statues found in the tombs of nobles of the Old Kingdom follow royal precedent. Royal tombs at Gizeh and Saqqara were surrounded by cities of the dead, as the officials sought to be buried near their king and to pass into eternity with him. Gradually the beliefs once associated with the king or his immediate family were adopted by his nobles, and then by less important people, until everybody at their death hoped to become identified with Osiris, the dead king; but the quality, size, and material of the ka statue buried in a tomb depended upon the prosperity and means of its owner.

The earlier private sculptures, like the royal ones they imitated, were very much in the ritual tradition. In later periods craftsmen, particularly those working in wood, often produced small figures of great charm when they did not feel themselves bound by religious convention. Such small statuettes were often made to serve a practical purpose and carried containers which held cosmetic substances; later they were buried among the personal possessions of their owners. Note: Egyptian plastic artists reportedly exerted considerable influence on African sculpture from sub-Saharan Africa, including works from Benin and Yoruba in west Africa.

Egyptian Relief Sculpture. Egyptian relief sculpture is executed in various modes, as follows:. Virtually all the wall-sculptures of the Ancient Egyptian Empire are in the form of bas-relief, while sunken and outline relief are the most common sculptural techniques used during the New Empire. High-relief occurs occasionally in tombs of the Ancient Empire, but is mainly confined to the New Empire and to such forms as Osiride and Hathoric piers and also to wall statues.

In its treatment of figures in the round, ancient Egyptian sculpture is limited to only a few forms. These include: the standing figure, with left foot slightly in front of the right, the head erect, and the eyes looking straight ahead. Variations are obtained by changing the position of the arms. In the seated figures there is the same set pose of the head, body, and lower limbs. Beside these, the kneeling and squatting poses frequently reoccur, with little variation. Statues in the round usually depicted the gods, Pharaohs, or civic officials, and were composed with special reference to the maintenance of straight lines.

But if the major monuments of state were limited in type and pose, a whole series of statues depicting domestic subjects were composed much more freely. Little importance was paid to grouping. It was usually a simple juxtaposition of two standing or two seated statues, or of one standing person and one seated person. A god and a man, or a husband and a wife, were positioned side by side. In family groups the figure of a child was occasionally added. Symbolism was heavily used in sculptures representating the gods.

When depicted in human form they were distinguished by emblems, but they were more often represented as composite creatures with animal heads on human bodies. Thus, for instance, Horus has the head of a hawk; Anubis, the head of a jackal; Khnum, a ram; Thoth, an ibis; Sebek, a crocodile; Isis, a decorative motif. On the exterior walls of temples they were typically and irregularly arranged over the surface, but on interior walls they were carefully arranged in horizontal rows.

They were not really pictures, but picture-writing in relief, and were often little more than enlarged hieroglyphs. Such being their character, there was little stimulus to enhance their artistic composition. Relief-composition merely meant arranging the figures in horizontal lines so as to record an event or represent an action. The principal figures were distinguished from others by their size - gods were shown larger than men, kings larger than their followers, and the dead larger than the living. Subordinate actions were juxtaposed in horizontal bands.

In other respects there was very little importance placed on unity of effect; and empty space was typically filled with figures and hieroglyphs on the principle that nature abhors a vacuum. In composition of this kind, constructed like sentences, there was little need for perspective. Scenes were not depicted as they appeared within the field of vision: instead, individual components were all brought to the plane of representation, and laid out like writing. For example, the representation of a man - who might be depicted with head in profile, but eye en face, with shoulders in full front, but trunk turned three-quarters and legs in profile - is not the picture of a man as he appears to the eye; but is rather a symbolic representation of a man - an image that was perfectly clear to most spectators.

In the same symbolic way a pond might be indicated by a rectangle, its water content by zig-zag lines, while bordering trees projected from the four sides of the rectangle. A military army was depicted with its more distant ranks brought into the plane of representation and arranged in horizontal lines one above the other. In a few instances the effects of perspective were suggested, but being largely superfluous to the purpose of Egyptian art they remained minimalistic. As Egyptian statues represented the permanent body of the deceased, so relief-sculptures usually covered in stucco, then painted portrayed the situations in which his ethereal body might continue to move.

They were not conceived as mere architectural decorations, but had principally a recording or immortalizing function. They adorned the outer and inner walls of temples, as well as the galleries and walls of tombs, with scant regard for aesthetic considerations or colours used, were vivid in tone, few in number, and durable in quality. They were applied in uniform flat masses and arranged in striking contrasts, while techniques like chiaroscuro and colour-perspective remained quite foreign to the Egyptian art of painting. Indeed the painting of reliefs was purely functional and served to make the figures more distinct, rather than more natural. Pigment was rarely used to indicate rotundity of form, and was applied in a purely conventional manner.

The faces of men were painted reddish brown, and those of women yellow, although gods might have faces of any hue. Like reliefs, wood-carved statues and those made of soft stone were frequently treated with stucco and paint, in a similar fashion. History and Development of Egyptian Sculpture. Despite the wealth of materials and quantity of production, Egyptian sculpture changed so gradually that it is not easy to trace a precise evolutionary path - from the earliest dynasties we find a fully developed art.

Even at this early stage, Egyptian 3-D artists demonstrated a mastery in hard-stone sculpture and bronze-sculpture , and there is no archaic or prototype period to illustrate how this mastery was attained. Egyptian culture has not yet enlightened us as to its prehistoric art forms, nor do we know of a pre-existing foreign idiom or skill-set which she may have borrowed or acquired, except possibly the art of Mesopotamia in modern-day Iraq.

Thus in general, irrespective of its origin, Egyptian art during the historic period is marked more by its continuity than its evolutionary changes. Even so, Egyptian sculpture can to some extent be distinguished from period to period. Note: For a survey of the evolution of Western sculpture, see: Sculpture History. It was in the late 2nd and early 3rd Dynasties, from about 2, BCE, that what could be termed the characteristic ancient-Egyptian style of sculpture in stone was established, a style transmitted through some 2, years to the Ptolemaic period with only minor exceptions and modifications.

The predominant features of this style are the regularity and symmetry of the figures, solid and four-square whether standing or seated. Michelangelo is reputed to have believed that a block of stone contained a sculpture, as it were in embryo, which it was the artist's task to reveal. The typical ancient-Egyptian completed figure gives a strong impression of the block of stone from which it was carved. The artists removed an absolute minimum of raw stone, commonly leaving the legs fused in a solid mass to a back pillar, the arms attached to the sides of the body, while seated figures were welded to their chairs. Not that these sculptures seem clumsy or crude; they convey an impression of severe elegance, a purity of line that suggests by its tautness a restrained energy.

The first stages in the making of a statue, as with relief and painting, involved the drafting of a preliminary sketch. An massacre left some Native Americans dead, in what was the final clash between federal troops and the Sioux. In , members of the American Indian Movement occupied Wounded Knee for 71 days to protest conditions on the reservation. Throughout , the U. Many Sioux believed that if they practiced the Ghost Dance and rejected the ways of the white man, the gods would create the world anew and destroy all non-believers, including non-Indians.

On December 15, , reservation police tried to arrest Sitting Bull , the famous Sioux chief, who they mistakenly believed was a Ghost Dancer, and killed him in the process, increasing the tensions at Pine Ridge. On December 29, the U. As that was happening, a fight broke out between an Indian and a U. The cavalry lost 25 men. The conflict at Wounded Knee was originally referred to as a battle, but in reality it was a tragic and avoidable massacre.

Borrowing some tactics from the anti-war student demonstrators of the era, AIM soon gained national notoriety for its flamboyant protests. However, many mainstream Indian leaders denounced the youth-dominated group as too radical. In , a faction of AIM members led by Dennis Banks and Leonard Peltier sought to close the divide by making alliances with traditional tribal elders on reservations.

When Wilson learned of a planned AIM protest against his administration at Pine Ridge, he retreated to tribal headquarters where he was under the protection of federal marshals and Bureau of Indian Affairs police. Rather than confront the police in Pine Ridge, some AIM members and their supporters decided to occupy the symbolically significant hamlet of Wounded Knee, site of the massacre. Wilson, with the backing of the federal government, responded by besieging Wounded Knee. During the 71 days of the siege, which began on February 27, , federal officers and AIM members exchanged gunfire almost nightly. Hundreds of arrests were made, and two Native Americans were killed and a federal marshal was permanently paralyzed by a bullet wound.

The leaders of AIM finally surrendered on May 8 after a negotiated settlement was reached. In a subsequent trial, the judge ordered their acquittal because of evidence that the FBI had manipulated key witnesses. AIM emerged victorious and succeeded in shining a national spotlight on the problems of modern Native Americans. The troubles at Wounded Knee were not over after the siege. A virtual civil war broke out between the opposing Indian factions on the Pine Ridge reservation, and a series of beatings, shootings and murders left more than Indians dead.

In , Peltier was convicted of killing the two FBI agents and sentenced to life in prison. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!

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