✯✯✯ What Is Duboiss Relationship In A Streetcar Named Desire
For while the banker' s-son-as-potential-counterfeiter' s Jung Typology Test correlates to the poi soning-of-the-well of economic circulation, the effect of thi s di sease-like spread of counterfeit bills is that the Compare And Contrast Auschwitz And Buna which makes legible this negation--market circulation--breaks down to mere speculation. After Stella leaves with Blanche, he calls for her nonstop until she finally comes back to him. An installment of one of the more popular detective dime What Is Duboiss Relationship In A Streetcar Named Desire serials in the nineteenth century provokingly titled "Shoving the Queer: Old King Brady on the Scent of the What Is Duboiss Relationship In A Streetcar Named Desire opens in What Is Duboiss Relationship In A Streetcar Named Desire rural New What Is Duboiss Relationship In A Streetcar Named Desire tavern frequented by What Is Duboiss Relationship In A Streetcar Named Desire engaged in construction of a new railroad line. A rendition of crime-as-spectacle also permeates Riis's attempt at technologically acquiring- Riis calls "taking" which meant to take one' s picture, but also recalling Roosevelt' s menacing use of the verb "take" General Count Alfred Von Shlieffen Plan Essay "reality. Some, like Jonny Johansson from Acne Studios, offered a bright take. Repetition and circulation seems in part to become ingrained onto the daily lives of those whom frequented these exhibitions, and seems also to become a class-differentiated characteristic. After yelling What Is Duboiss Relationship In A Streetcar Named Desire her, he goes into the bathroom and slams the door.
Relationships in 'A Streetcar Named Desire'
Aldrich, W. Allen, Robert C. John L. Berkeley: U of California P, Berkeley: U of Califomnia P, Anderson, Benedict. London: Verso, Pullman Company Scrapbook. Pullman Archives at the Newberry Library. By Ida B. Wells et al. Robert Rydell. Urbana: U of Illinois P, Bamnett, Louise K. Baudrillard, Jean. London: Sage, For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign. Charles Levin. Louis: Telos P, Simulation and Sinsulacra. Sheila Faria Glaser. Beaud, Michel. A History ofCapitaisnz, Tom Dickman and Anny Lefevbre. New York: Monthly Review P, Benj amin, Walter. The Arcades Project. Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlan. In this sense exhibitions illuminate the ways that the motion picture participates in the reconstitution of the human as a citizen of consumerism by inflating one's whole being with a momentum of desire by which "subj activity" can be understood.
The panorama shot, so popular at these exhibitions, offers the subj ect a whole store of commodities, lays them before the centered subj ect, placing them within the desiring reach of the camera' s eye. Hence, as Frederic Jameson reminds us the cinematic narrative form is the narrative form of realism. But Buffalo's fascination with electricity offers a different setting in the fusion of industrial advance and nascent systems of criminal justice: ten years earlier, the city of Buffalo was the setting for the crime that would result in the first use of the electric chair.
That particular device--an invention of the corporate laboratories of Thomas Edison--would be the means to the execution of Czolgosz as well, and this execution also would serve as the subj ect matter for one of the first motion-pictures of the kinetoscope-- yet another invention of the corporate laboratories of Edison: Edwin Porter' s three minute long motion-picture titled The 3 Jameson writes "Not coincidently, the emergence of such narrative centers is then at once accompanied by the verbal or narrative equivalences of techniques characteristic of film the tracking shot, the panning of the camera from Carrie's position as observer to that of a telescopic keyhole glimpse of the ultimate interior, with its enclosed warmth and height --that medium which will shortly become the hegemonic formal expression of late capitalist society" Edmund Jephcott.
Peter Demetz. New York: Schocken Books, Hannah Arendt. Harry Zohn. New York: Schocken, Bingham, Theodore A. The Girl that Disappears. Boston: Badger Press, 1. Bishop, Joseph Bucklin. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, Berman, Marshall. New York: Penguin, Bledstein, Burton. New York: Norton, Brown, Bill. Cambridge: Harvard UP, Amy Kaplan and Donald E. Brown, Gillian. Myra Jehlen. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, Bryant, John. Buck-Morss, Susan. Buder, Stanley. New York: OUP, Carby, Hazel. Cartwright, Nancy. Menneaoplis: U of Minnesota P, In addition, Todd has been a labor organizer for Graduate Assistants United, the labor union for the graduate teaching and research assistants at the University of Florida.
Todd also has been an organizer and activist for Critical Resistance Gainesville, a local prison abolition group that challenges the prevailing cultural logic that the security offered by an increased police presence and exponential growth in the number of incarcerated working peoples actually does not serve to make our communities safer. This dissertation, as a product of Todd' s life' s labor, attempts to bridge those segregated learning environments--the academy and the community--in the hopes of working toward a more equal society.
Against this backdrop, we can view Benj amin Rush' s attempt to recreate a population as a series of what Dumm calls individualized "republican machines"-citizenns that would best be suited for a republican form of government Dumm One of Rush' s inventions for his asylum was designed to do just that: Rush' s tranquilizer eerily calls forth an image that emblemizes the path through which criminal justice will be distributed en masse [see figure ]. Because of the division of the human into a dialectic of inner thought and outer works, curing the social ills of the mind must first embody techniques that would control the stimuli that influenced those mental faculties.
As Dumm points out, Rush took the position that if those stimuli were controlled, so too could particular ills that supposedly had been caused by the over- stimulation of the senses. Extreme cases required extensive control of an array of stimuli; the penitentiary emerged as the overarching site of the complex proj ect of moral reform through scientific, mechanized stimulus control One key characteristic of this new paradigm of punishment is the principle of solitary confinement, a principle that Dumm argues was developed by Rush' s asylum as a means of modifying socially incorrect behavior. The eighteenth century produced jails that "didn't work" because of a tendency to overstimulate the offenders, and thus prison and legal reformers wrote provisions for controlling stimuli into Pennsylvania law.
Every minute detail of the convict' s life--diet, sleeping patterns, grooming habits, and other daily 20 The proper training for their roles in the great machine of government was indeed to be accomplished in these institutions where morality was traditionally formed, namely, the church, home, and school. Dumm 91 opening scene situates the characters in relation to one another on the basis of crime and punishment--the words emanating from their mouths locate them in relation to each other, a particular act the crime and the body of a new sovereignty, the detective.
And one particular intonation that echoes throughout the landscape of this particular narrative is presented as race. Once Hannah, the quick-tempered woman from the first scene, learns that Black Tom who turns out to be Nick Miller, a white New York detective in blackface is on the case, she runs to tell her lover, "Foxsey Bill," who also is one of the perpetrators of the crime and one figure in what will turn out to be a conspiracy that extends beyond the spatial limits of class and race. Bill responds with, or, more precisely, the narrator attributes to Bill, a self-assurance that ripples with aporia: "Foxsey Bill was more afraid of a white detective than he was of Black Tom" 8.
Already, a construction of crime and of its supposed anodyne in the Law is wrought with racial conflict; or the conflict boiled into proletarianization gets displaced into one of criminality that revolves around race. The Law, the reciprocity assigned for a specific act and in a 33Denning, in lus assessment of dime novels as the whole in the latter portions of nineteenth-century America, at times seems rather dismissive in regards to projections and echoes of race- claiming that no dime novels were "aimed at blacks" But it is precisely this field of differentiation within the working class that must be analyzed, and this particular dime novel narrative offers the material through which emerging structures and attitudes about race and citizenship, legality, statesmanship, and criminality will be grounded.
After all, it was the emergence of a new free labor force, comprised in large part by a people for whom the only justification presented us to their enslavement was a field labeled racial difference-coordinated with a rise in industrial production that came to define the period. Instead of human conflict, there is competition between abstract intelligence. This competition is like that of the marketplace, where what is involved is a struggle over cost-prices and sales-prices, and not between complex human beings. But, just like the supposed conflict of the marketplace between people over value and price, embodied in the money form, so too does the social conflict of capital and labor seep through the mask of crime and punishment.
But unheroic though bourgeois society is, it nevertheless needed heroism, sacrifice, terror, civil war, and national wars to bring it into being. The State enacts a stance toward revolution of "thus far, and no further," and secures itself against such further revolution with its conception of the idea of political "terror. For Hegel, as he is read by Herbert Marcuse, "civil society" becomes a term and idea activating the political role of the state. Labor here is a concept grounding Hegel's understanding of the development of "civil society" Marcuse What apparently binds humans in a social relation is the capacity of labor which "transforms the particular work of the individual, pursued for the gratification of his personal wants, into 'general labor,' which operates to produce commodities for the market.
Hegel calls this last 'abstract and quantitative' labor and makes it responsible for the increasing inequality of men and wealth. Society in incapable of overcoming the antagonisms growing out of this inequality; consequently, the 'system of government' has to concentrate on the task" Marcuse Hegel goes on, in Marcuse's view, to identify various stages of government in an attempt to regulate equality in "civil society," for the social bond has the negative consequence of completely subordinating people to the "demon of abstract labor," perpetuated by the conditions of exchange. For Hegel, a state needs to step in to free people from the terms of this subjugation. But in consenting to the social division of labor, "citizens" allow themselves to be contained as capitalist subj ects.
The growing influence of these trade unions, of people whose conception of their own political agency depended on a close relationship to specialized labor apart from general unskilled workers, helped define the contours of the developing mercantile-democratic state. Ironically, the spectacle of "dead letters" and "dead men" returns to become the onus for new interventions that would define the violence properly exercised by the sovereign state. Overriding the authority of Chicago' s popular mayor Patrick Hopkins--who had once himself been an operative for the Pullman factories and was a strong supporter of Pullman' s striking workers--and Illinois governor John Altgeld, President Grover Cleveland deployed federal troops to end the strike.
As Benj amin notes in "The Critique of Violence," part of the constitution of the modern state involves a systematic means of resolving the violence attendant to class conflict. The right to violence that is usually reserved for the state has also, through historical struggle, been granted to organized labor in the right to strike. In one sense, the detective novel here illuminates the extent to which "subj activity" is a negation, an abstraction from a larger, social whole. For while the banker' s-son-as-potential-counterfeiter' s appearance correlates to the poi soning-of-the-well of economic circulation, the effect of thi s di sease-like spread of counterfeit bills is that the system which makes legible this negation--market circulation--breaks down to mere speculation.
Everyone's pay in the entire tavern, indeed the people within this local community, are all now suspect, and any attempt to assert a material presence--a function of the logic of immediacy within exchange relations--by passing these bills becomes the means to the unraveling of the evaluative conditions and presuppositions necessary for exchange in the first place; or, in Marx's wording, the road from the mint becomes the path to the melting pot. Lefebvre writes [T]he fragmentation of labour provides only a negative foundation for individuality: in this world of production, individuals have an effective self-consciousness, but of a kind which makes them lead inward-looking lives, centered upon their particular skill and specialization.
As regards to the rest of social and human life, they are conscious of it only in so far as they reject it, despise or transpose it to a level of unreality. They tend towards individualism" The indissoluble contradiction of money as facilitator of exchange can be traced to this corruptibility of the material of which money is made. For money to work as the sign of value, according to Marx, it needs to be emptied of all its physical properties, have no use-value inherent to its material.
Still, its presence must be apparent, it must exist in reality for the purposes of reciprocity. Hence, the very characteristic of money as facilitator of exchange also catalyzes money's collapse as a sign of value. Noteworthy is the fact that most of these Public Citizens Associations were not "public" in the strictest sense; instead, numerous industrialists who had lost property in the outbreaks composed these boards. Pullman, president and founder of the corporation that produced, among other things, the world-famous Pullman Palace Cars. Beginning his career in physically elevating properties when threatened by floods or other water-type damages, Pullman soon turned his attention to luxury railroad travel when, on a particularly long and incommodious business trip, he decided to himself that surely people would pay top-dollar to travel in comfort.
As the Pullman Palace Car Company grew, each employee, from the manufacturers through the conductors and porters that manned the cars themselves were strictly monitored, their tasks closely regimented. In order to ensure this efficiency, Pullman hired "spotters" who traveled on the cars in disguise to test the honesty of each worker Buder Not all attempts to stem the supposedly rising red tide relied on overtly militaristic measures. The events of spurred in industrialists like Pullman a concern for the causes behind labor agitation Buder Such an impetus would propel Pullman to begin in construction of a model company town that would distance his workers and his factories from the "evil influences" offered by the metropolis and the "rioting immigrant neighborhoods" qtd.
When asked much later what drove him to build his famous company town located far enough south of Chicago, Pullman responded 14 In , Pullman himself had been invited to participate in a lawsuit to recover damages that resulted from the violence of In the Pullman Company Archives at the Newberry Library in Chicago is a letter from the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, inviting George Pullman to participate in a lawsuit against Allegheny County in Pennsylvania for the destruction of property from damages done on July 21 and 22, Repetition and circulation seems in part to become ingrained onto the daily lives of those whom frequented these exhibitions, and seems also to become a class-differentiated characteristic.
Film historian Alan Williams has brought attention to the idea that a significant number of early motion-picture productions also were documentaries that filmed factory work and work-related activities Under the short motion-picture, historicity is abstracted and reanimated--the desire to know, which is a historical desire, is fulfilled without the act of critically thinking through history. By trains had so affected 3 Silent cinema continually showed civilization, the city, the flat, everyday objects, objects of art of cult, every possible artifact.
However," Deleuze writes, "it passes on a kind of naturalness to them, which is as it were the secret and beauty of the silent-image [ Film Scholar Garth Jowett argues "The single-most important reason favoring the growth of all recreational activity was the increase in available leisure time. The decline in the work of American workers meant more time for reading and other forms of self-improvement. Thus in nonagricultural industries, the work week decline by about the hours between from 66 to 56 hours" Jowett' s study points to an increase in "amusements" in distinguishing and segmenting the daily existence of the urban often immigrant worker at the tumn of the century: numerous urban recreational facilities such as dime museums, dance halls, beer gardens, saloons, bowling alleys, and billiard parlors began to spring up in the latter years of the nineteenth century Jowett argues that motion- pictures could transcend some of those bounds because vaudeville theaters that also showed motion-pictures were very cheap, and they could be enjoyed despite the language barriers found in many neighborhoods comprising of newly immigrated workers.
The material conditions for the motion-picture at the very end of the century presumes a social relation composed of intricate and complex divisions of the social stratification. But the saloon, whose open door you just passed in the hall, is always there. A specific effect of this narrative technique employed by Riis is to isolate specific characters--the children, the woman with the pail, the tenants sharing the hydrant, as well as himself and the audience- within a practice that utilizes spatial surroundings as a way for understanding one's own social position: the narrator explaining the various observances an "audience" perceives, an audience clumsily bumping into obj ects due to both unfamiliarity and not being able to "see," and an "other half" going about its daily life.
The activity of "seeing" here is rendered by Riis's specific words to have a dual function within the construction of narrative: Riis acts as the eyes for an audience on tour through the dark tenements, but Riis also uses the words to construct the ontological activity of seeing "the picture" to an audience accustomed to reading words an imagining of a picture on their own through the words that comprise the text. Riis's text produces a new way of "seeing": the author-expert both creating and bringing the phenomena to the person of the audience-novice, as well as explaining what that phenomena itself means.
The fact that Riis makes this "battlefield" absent of a particular enemy, save perhaps in the last sentence on the open doors of the saloon, founds an important counterforce to the horrors of the tenements. Such a subtle, yet aggressive force oppressing the tenements requires like subtlety, like aggression, through a methodic, organized, efficient civil service apparatus. Policing thus emerges under the guise of serving the community by plowing through it. Technologies of Detection: From Private to Prosthetic Eyes The segmentation of individuals within a "proper place" becomes the grounds upon which narrative logic in this case imposes an expression of viewing someone in relation to their spatial surroundings, thus melting characters into the zones of contention.
Keith Gandal's observation on the "excess" of Riis' s photographs, that these pictures "cannot help reproduce If Morn is correct in his assertion that this particular detective agency serves as ancestor to the police as we know them today, the conceptualization of security as a catch-word for this era can potentially deteriorate from a conflict between the guarantors of public safety versus criminal threats to that order to one of "the knights of capital" versus "the knights of labor.
The examples of Pinkerton infiltration and detection chronicle the development of activities marked "criminal" in discourse with a closed "public" as an increasing anxiety to control labor and organized unrest, especially after the general strikes of the Paris commune of , for general strikes and labor unrest heralded revolution. Whereas Pinkertons in the formative years of the s and 60s had often been employed, significantly, as either divorce detectives or by railroad tycoons to ensure that individual conductors were not pocketing fares the word "embezzlement" begins to enter the lexicon of criminal justice at this time , in the final years of the nineteenth century, Pinkertons targeted a mass body of workers.
The apotheosis of this shift in mass security had occurred by , when armed Pinkertons were hired by the Carnegie Steel Company's plant manager Henry Clay Frick to retake the steel works in Homestead, Pennsylvania, from the workers who had occupied it to prevent replacements from taking their j obs after a lock-out in a 6. Indeed this is exactly the terms that Momn uses as the title of his fifth chapter, in which he details the rise of a labor war that began with the Mollie Maguire incident, and continued throughout the later portions of the nineteenth century, as unions and laborers explicitly expressed an anxiety about spies for the employer provoking criminal activities.
Momn notes that this period marked the rise of interest in National Guardism in to stem and suppress organized work actions; between and , the National Guard had been called in to end 33 labor disputes and 14 labor riots Marx' s initial foray into an analysis of circulation--of commodities exchanged for money so that a different commodity with a different use-value may be acquired C-M-C --itself illuminates a contradictory foundation for money: money also may be utilized in a process not just to exchange different commodities and thus as a mere placeholder for value , but is vital to a process of exchange in which a surplus of value may be created through the exchange itself M-C-M', or money exchanged for a commodity, to be exchanged later for a higher cost, to buy in order to sell more dear--money has thus been used to increase its own quantity.
The general equivalent, supposed as a squaring-of-the-account, a synchronization of time remade by the dynamics of exchange value, has also in its own being a sequence, a narrative of surplus accumulation. Money thus becomes the consummate text of U. Literary Realism, a form emerging in this particular era of American investment capitalism. Time, of course, holds particular import for Marxian notions of value as the measure of the amount of human labor socially necessary in commodity production. But for other attempts to explain the peculiarity of money, time is at the behest of money as an instrument of payment, as a means to fulfill desires created by certain barriers.
Simmel writes in his Philosophy of Money, "the opportunity of choice which money as an abstract instr-ument provides applies not only to the goods offered at any one time, but also to the date when it can be used" Simmel's notion of money as a type of technology depends on the view of value as the extent to which obj ects resist human possession and consumption. The content of our desire becomes an object as soon as it is opposed to us, not only in the sense of being impervious to us, but also in terms of its distance as something not-yet enjoyed, the subjective aspect of this condition being desire" We see in this scene the logic of How the Other HalfLives: Riis builds with these snapshots a narrative to be consumed for the benefit of its own ideas, "capturing the moment" for its own end of obtaining a "realistic" feel for how "tramps" live.
A rendition of crime-as-spectacle also permeates Riis's attempt at technologically acquiring- Riis calls "taking" which meant to take one' s picture, but also recalling Roosevelt' s menacing use of the verb "take" - "reality. With these photographs the image of crime also extends from its temporal realm to produce an idea of "crime" that exists for the benefit of its own consumption- that is, concocted to show how crime "ends. One of them tumbled over against a shed, as if asleep, while two of the others bent over him, searching his pockets with a deftness that was highly suggestive. This, they explained for my benefit, was to show how they "did the trick.
I The vexed relation 17As Ernest Mandel argues, "The detective story is the realm of the happy ending. The criminal is always caught. Justice is always done. Crime never pays. Bourgeois legality, bourgeois values, bourgeois society, always triumph in the end. It is soothing, socially integrating literature, despite its concern with crime, violence, and murder" The presence of the korl woman does not just appear at the bookends marking Davis' s diagesis but also at the point of contact for the differentiated spaces nI ithrin the new social relation under industrial production. Most memorably, its appearance to the mill owners visiting the iron mills is quite literally unsettling, its haunting presence serving to collapse assumptions about those who make up the differentiated space of the mill.
More pressingly, though, the logic of production and accumulation and the desire that mediates these new social relations, that logic of commodity creation Hugh Wolfe has known his whole life, will structure the logic of his punishment and imprisonment. It was market-day. The narrow window of the jail looked down directly on the carts and wagons drawn up in a long line, where they had unhooked. Somehow, the sound, more than anything else had done, wakened him up,-- made the whole real to him. He was done with the world and the business of it. This division of labour is a necessary condition for commodity production, although the converse does not hold: commodity production is not a necessary condition for the social division of labour.
Labour is socially divided in the primitive Indian community, although the products do not thereby become commodities. Or take an example nearer home, labour is systematically divided into every factory, but the workers do not bring about this division by exchanging their individual products. Only the products of mutually independent acts of labour, performed in isolation, can confront each other as commodities. Use-vales cannot confront each other as commodities unless the useful labor contained in them is qualitatively different in each case. In a society whose products generally assume the form of commodities, i.
Capital offered by these apparatuses of security whispers that myth across this faithful Mississippi steamer. The next peddler in Melville's line of gentlemen "hawks" a different type of safeguard-- narrative tales of various thieves, bandits, crooks who achieved popular icon read: mythical status. Creatures, with others of the sort, one and all exterminated at the time, and for the most part, like the hunted generations of wolves in the same regions, leaving comparatively few successors; which would seem cause for unalloyed gratulation, and is such to all except those who think that in new countries, where the wolves are killed off, the foxes increase. A sort of exceptional state--the popular myth--becomes one proper realm of narration.
Note that the limits of subj activities these famed criminals have--fame through their traversal of the borders of citizenship granted through capitalism--is represented as a penultimate horizon, a dying practice that is itself becoming legendary rebelliousness recorded as spectacle, emptied of its politically threatening potential. Crime as spectacle is at once both outside of circulation and in the process of being included into circulation. And yet this mythical notion of "foxes" contriving to short-circuit the laws of the market begins our narrative; narrative becomes the direction to which these deferments will be settled, and the gap or irreconcilable payment, of excessive value that was itself a product of exchange develops.
The endless procession of obj ects made for exchange establishes a new system of living social life as ifby proxy: rather than humans in direct social interaction with each other, humans interact with each other indirectly, filtered through the tranquilized, secure social contract of the from the event of exchange, but for an element which Kamuf ignores in her analysis--the desire to further immerse oneself in the social situation of the market and its correlative in accumulation of debt. To say that the cultural practice of composing and reading fiction in this period resembles the now dominant mode of capital in the later portions of the nineteenth century is not enough; the economic primacy of investment instead here seems to be the basis for new cultural practices like reading fiction as a "realist" with an implicit understanding of the deeply buried yet still volatile conflicts and antagonisms that act as a subtext for the limited perspective granted citizenship.
Kamuf s assessment of Melville' s text as a deployment of a "literary credit card" thus immerses any activity of reading as a matter of class privilege, for while the infinite procession of obj ects meant to satisfy the desire for equal exchange defines the writing process, this economy of signs imposes itself on the exploited of the market, particularly on those who rely on the "marketing" of their own living labor. We will encounter a strong example of this at Pullman in chapter 2. A definition of literature as a system of credit all too easily masks its counterpart--a system of debt, one which will even assure against the autonomy for the worker, guaranteeing she or he cannot leave this system by which surplus is accumulated the more she has been alienated from her own efforts.
The infinite procession of obj ects of "payment" offered by the Black Guinea points to a fundamentally new paradigm and approach to "reading" the "novel" as artifact, for "reading" now relies on an essentially bourgeois notion of value: a series of signs placed in sequence is enough in itself to generate the promise of payment, the fulfillment and successful transmission of a coherent idea. For it is precisely this procession of commodities introduced by the Guinea-- the gentleman with the weed, the gentleman with a grey coat and white tie, etc. In its asking, the eminently safe narrator poses circulation as the norm for everyday social life; that human death--Bartleby's death--should be now grasped and understood via a set of "rles of engagement" for capitalist exchange.
For many of these critics, the narrator' s comparison of Bartleby to "dead letters" would then offer a vexing moment where capital appears astute in its recognition of its own flaws--a moment of rare perceptiveness for a dim narrator whom is characterized up until this point by his lack of perception, particularly when reading the class divi sions of New York. What offense, what state-sanctioned crime has Bartleby committed? Rather than close this narrative with a critical inquiry into sovereign SMichael Gilmore's argument concerning the legibility of class antagonism seems particularly astute, and an accurate description of the "knowledge" of the narrator. According to Gilmore's argument, this epilogue is more evidence of an increasing opaqueness between classes.
Gillian Brown further articulates an absolute inability for the narrator to make Bartleby comprehendiblee" in the language of circulation and desire that are available to him. Brown reads the epilogue as this final moment of class illegibilityv" in which Bartleby has removed himself from the rigors of circulation and desire fostered by the world of Wall Street. Stringently restricting the agoraphobic imagination to its ethic of immobility, Bartleby elaborates death as the best method of self-preservation. He leaves the world in order to keep himself' The narrator then misunderstands Bartleby, or, more precisely cannot fathom a removal from the contours of circulation: thus, the closing paragraphs of the narrative attempt to recuperate Bartleby within circulation: Bartleby's condition seems to the narrator an intensified experience of human mortality.
He therefore commemorates Bartleby's passage as a testament of the human tragedy, joining the man and the crowd in his closing lament" Reed argues that "Bartleby's sad fate is another lesson in capitalism, one Bartleby himself never learns. If the seemingly equal exchanges of circulation conceal injustices, we cannot respond to these injustices by attempting to get out of circulation. Bartleby's fate makes his critique of circulation all the more pressing, for the story reminds us that a response to the capitalist logic of the lawyer lies not beyond circulation but within it" Americans in the city either kept pace with or grew faster than other demographics during this timeframe; Chicago' s expanse was at least in part due to the increase in the numbers of African Americans coming to this Midwestern industrial hub.
But Black Chicagoans, more than any other group during this time, found themselves more and more the subj ects of the intensive proj ect to manage urban social space, evidenced by the fact that large pockets of Chicago emerged as a "Black Belt. While certainly many Blacks chose to live close to and associate indeed forge a community--with those who shared a common history, the extent to which African Americans had been isolated within the city had been so thorough so as to suggest a much more elaborate proj ect of communal engineering taking place on perceived racialized differences.
African Americans were not allowed to vote in the city through , and public schools had been racially segregated in the city up through By , sixteen Chicago wards were Over half of the city's black population lived in three congruous South Side wards Philpott Racial consideration also went into the construction, or at least the "containment" of "red light districts. George Pullman, who had in the years leading up to had been quietly purchasing prairie land south of the burgeoning metropolis, claimed publicly the need to move his workers so relatively far from Chicago to escape the vice that he felt plagued these urban centers, particularly in terms of 25 NO white people, not even the sort who patronized whores and gambling tables, cared to live next door to bordellos and casinos any more than they wanted to live near Negroes.
Because it was not possible, or at least not politic to suppress vice, the police segregated it. Black people were helpless to prevent the authorities from locating the red light district where they lived, just as they were unable to stop whites from segregating them" Philpott Note, for instance, this passage in Riis's text describing "The Bend," one of Riis' s zones of criminality Where Mulberry Street crooks like an elbow within hail of the old depravity of the Five Points is "the Bend," foul core of New York' s slums. Long years ago the cows coming home from the pasture trod a path over this hill.
There is but one "Bend" in the world, and it is enough. The city authorities, moved by the angry protests of ten years of sanitary reform effort, have decided that it is too much and must come down. Around "the Bend" cluster the bulk of the tenements that are stamped as altogether bad, even by the optimists of the Health Department. Incessant raids cannot keep down the crowds that make them their home. In the scores of back alleys, of stable lanes and hidden byways, of which the rent collector alone can keep track, they share such shelter as the ramshackle structures afford with every kind of abomination rifled from the dumps and ash-barrels of the city.
Here, too, shunning the light, skulks the unclean beast of dishonest idleness. Riis's descriptive terms employed in this passage-- "foul core," "vast human pig-sty," "ramshackle structures,"-- couples with spatial metaphors-- "crooks like an elbow within hail [. But the conflation of hygiene and proper circulation into a tyipe of transgression is also embodied in these particular characters.
Riis describes the depravity of these figures as "dishonest idleness," a term that would evoke emergent feelings of prescient taylorism: that somehow, what makes these figures "tramps," and "dishonest" is idleness, a lack of proper movement within the pace of the city. Criminality and citizenship is packaged in this passage as degrees of functionality within the pace of the urban market.
This calculated incalculable opens up in this text, for Kamuf, a potent literary horizon, that which confounds the insistency fostered by a market synchronized by the event of instantaneous exchange and instead resides in the aleatory future. For Kamuf, this narrative temporality deploys a resolution always anticipated but never made present, in infinite deferment in which literature and the novel dwell, running counter to, counterfeiting, the cadences of a real defined by immediacy, present, exacting payment.
What is needed is a more satisfactory mode of being in the world with others. The proposed alternative is charity, urged emphatically in chapter 1" Charity, then, for Van Cromphout will provide the moral axis upon which the rest of the novel revolves Of course, this highly problematic reading of the novel denies any possible subtext that would even hint at "charity," "credit," or any other feelings describing a new social relation drawing actors to exchange as exploitative. Its temporality is that of an always-yet-to-come, and it issues what may be called literature's unlimited credit card" Modern invention and business methods have transferred industry and its products from the home to the factory, the big store and the office.
The great majority of our people now live in large towns and cities. Bingham and titled The Girl that Disappears: There is absolutely no question of the existence to an appalling extent of women who are veritable white slaves. At least 2, of them are brought into the country every year. Generally the picture of what they are to find in this country is painted by their countrymen, a man who has been in the United States and has returned for the fixed purpose of finding girls to take back with him. What is most striking about this particular act of congress is not just the immorality wrought into the activity of prostitution, but the fact that such a morality could violate prescribed spatial practice: that is, it is not merely the activity of prostitution being marked as criminal here, but the possibility of intraspatial criminality herein suggested.
With the advances of technological reproduction, large-scale conflict seemed to have been made an inseparable part of industrial society. As Montgomery has argued, the collective, coordinated effort of thousands of hands in iron and steel manufactures wrought new organizations of social labor wherein "technical expertise and intense physical exertion were applied to ever-more imposing furnaces, rolling mills, molds, and transfer machinery, all of which were legally owned by other men" At the hilt of this example of newly-forged community-as-soluti on-to-urb an-problems of crime, vi ce, and ri ot and serving to constantly remind the place of the worker in this new style of social organization stood Pullman' s main factory; watching guard over its territory and mediating all social interactions of the community would be the immense and intimidating factory clock tower--the monolith of the industrialized working day by which all worker-citizens would synchronize their lives so as to be "better, more productive neighbors.
Extrapolating from the refrain from Marx' s The Poverty of Philosophy, if "the handmill gives you society with the feudal lord; the steam mill, society with the industrial capitalist," the factory clock tower gives you society with the industrial soverign. Marx' s demonstration of the process through which living labor is commodified via the creation of factory-time and the working day most explicitly laid out in chapters 7 and 10 of Capital, 19 Offers insight on our example of the significance of the factory 19 This important passage reads: "The value of a day's labor power amounts to three shillings, because on our own assumption, half a day's labor is objectified in that quantity of labor-power cost half-a-day's labour.
But the past labour embodied in the labour-power and the living labour it can perform, and the daily cost of maintaining labour- power, the latter is its use-value. The fact that half-a-day's labour is necessary to keep the worker alive during 24 hours does not in any way prevent him from working a whole day. Therefore the value of labour-power, and the value which labour-power valorizes [vertwertet] in the labour-process, are two entirely different magnitudes; and this difference was what the capitalist had in mind when he was purchasing that labour-power.
The useful quality of labour-power, by virtue of which it makes yarn or boots, was to the capitalist merely the necessary condition for his activity: for in order to create value labour must be expended in a useful manner. What was really decisive for him convict lease system after emancipation. For the overarching proj ect of the pamphlet suggested in its title--promising to give the reason why the celebration of technological progress had been recorded and blanched white--such chapters by Wells hardly focus directly on any subj ect of industrial production, yet offer a key critical insight into the workings of an overarching, complex structure understood broadly as culture; Wells's writings herein offer an innovative and rich device of cultural criticism.
The chapter on the Convict Lease System in particular develops Wells's critique of racialized alienation: "The white Christian and moral influences have not only done little to prevent the Negro from becoming a criminal, but they have deliberately shut him out of everything which tends to make for good citizenship" The trope of the Black criminal was already a developed figure in the American landscape at the time, and was a primary fuel for the Convict Lease System as a structure that was also key to the modernization of an industrial South.
Wells gives weight to this argument by noting the racial disparities in convict demographics. In , Wells notes, "[i]t is an astounding fact that 90 per cent of [Georgia' s] convicts are colored; white males and two white females; colored males and 44 colored females" These same racial disparities are involved in the production of "civilization," of "citizenship," and of "culture" that had been offered by the World' s Columbian Exposition. Unrecognized for the contributions their labor had in the development and advance of industry, African Americans could more easily be considered exceptions from the aegis of worker-as-citizen and the agency implied therein, and thus more easily fodder for systematized of the French purple on Bleeker and South Fifth Avenue, to lose itself and reappear, after a lapse of miles, in the "Little Italy" of Harlem, east of Second Avenue.
Dashes of red, sharply defined, would be seen strung through the Annexed District, northward to the city line. On the West Side the red would be seen overrunning the old Africa of Thompson Street, pushing the black of the Negro rapidly uptown against querulous but unavailing protests, occupying his home, his church, his trade and all, with merciless impartially. It is thus the activity of detection that can best identify and study, and therefore completely police, this potential war zone. In a narrative that begins significantly, at least, from a labor perspective early on the first day of May, with the discovery of "de most bootful corpse dat I eber seed," the dime novel detective story "Black Tom, the Negro Detective, or Solving a Thompson Street Murder" commences.
This particular story is taken from The Old Cap Collier Librar, a Hyve cent library that was published by George Munro between and , and is believed by dime novel scholar Gary Hoppenstand to be penned by W. A few western adventures appeared in this library from time to time, but the vast maj ority presented detection as an activity associated with the emergence of urbanization. The popularity of the detective in the urban scene was undeniable.
By , the year "Black Tom" was published which would locate it squarely between the Homestead Strike of and the Pullman Strike of , the Half-dime Library 20 Michael Denning's contends that authorship for these mysteries of the city remains a bit foggy; often a given library would employ a number of "house" authors whose names would be absent from the pages of the text. The rallying cry in those days, as it is today, was "the administration is not the University of Florida; we, the working people, are.
In this sense, and with the understanding that the discovery of new knowledge--the work of those employed in the university take as their charge--is itself a social act, not the work of any one author, but a composite of social life in general, I wish to address that true university community: I am honored to have been able to labor in your ranks, and I can only hope that this dissertation can be considered adequate enough to participate in the work it is so vital for us to undertake.
I would like to single out a few "fellow travelers"--if I may be so bold as to use the term--within this broad construction of a university community who have been especially vital to my education. I have been fortunate enough to have shared the last seven years of my academic life with many of the wonderful graduate students within the English department-- particularly Joel Adams, Sonya Anderson, Doris Bremm, Mindy Cardozo, Franklin Cason, Kate and hotels of the city's elite.
These contrasting chapters, these settings in conflict, are brought into contact with one another through a particular crime that has been placed strategically in the narrative. The novel's opening scene describes the disguised detective as "a mysterious individual, who came and went into and out of the negro quarters of the city like a phantom. What adds to the effect of detection, what makes detection work, is this shared understanding of spatial practices as absolute and definitive characteristic of racial difference. If the work both presents and assumes race to be a means through which people utilize their surroundings--a notion that was implied by Riis' s mapping strategy- then the narration of "crime" shifts temporally and spatially; it is no longer a singular event but, like Riis' s picture of the toughs "re-creating their crime," is rendered as a complex series that spans a cultural logic of space and time, of gender, race, and class.
These aristocrats looking to secure their fortunes through a lucrative marriage, organize the murder and assume that the social barrier of racially marked identities cannot be traversed: "'David told me that there is a detective called Black Tom scenting around. All his work they say is confined to the scenes where his own race live"' 9, my emphasis. Yet, the practice of detection strikes against criminality in its adaptability, in its "outward momentum. Suspicious people seem to exist at every corner-"the detective moved about among them and listened to their conversations" 6. His jealousy is terrifying because of the noble way he originally held himself. Alex turns bitter, and hates his career, to a point of wanting to quit.
Albert shows up and reminds Alex of what he does and why he does it, in turn causes Alex to get over his bitter feelings and chase after Sara. Daisy cries because the man who once looked at her like she was a person and indispensable is now trying to buy her, objectifying her once more in a way she never expected him to. Daisy loves the beauty of the shirts but hates what they mean for her. She has exhausted her ability to rebel against a world that expects her to be demeaned in this way, and cannot articulate her feelings.
She justifies her tears with the values of materialism that have been forced upon her, seeing how she is treated as an object herself. But Jody was set on it Desire can be defined as a strong feeling of wanting or wishing for something. The something could be an object, idea, or an event. The lives of the main character revolve around desire. Blanch wants to be desired. She will do anything to be desired. She lies to Stella and Stanley about …show more content… He desires a normal life with Stella, without Blanche in the picture. Stanley desires a normal life without Blanche so bad, that he completely broke her to get it. Stanley also wants to be desired.
When he is questioned by Blanche in front of his friends he throws a fit, in a way that could be interpreted into showing off for his friends. He takes his anger out on Stella and hits her. After Stella leaves with Blanche, he calls for her nonstop until she finally comes back to him. He needs Stella just as much as she needs …show more content… She needs Stanley for her own sexual needs and because she is having his baby.
Why, Stella! When he's away for a week I nearly go wild! And when he comes back I cry on his lap like a baby Stella chooses Stanley over Blanche multiple times. Blanche, Stella, and Stanley all have the same want to be desired. The ways they act and treat each other back that up. Blanche feels the need to be desired by everyone around her, Stanley by Stella and others, and Stella by Stanley. Their lives revolve around desire. For them, the opposite of desire is. Show More. Read More. Sexism In Antigone Words 5 Pages This play is a perfect example of a woman, following what she believes in and accomplishing her goal. Gender Roles In Dorothy Allison's Bastard Out Of Carolina Words 7 Pages On top of everything, her mother is continually sending her to stay with one of her aunties to keep her away from Glen, her abusive step-father.
The Great Gatsby Daisy Quotes Analysis Words 5 Pages Daisy cries because the man who once looked at her like she was a person and indispensable is now trying to buy her, objectifying her once more in a way she never expected him to. Related Topics.Simulation What Is Duboiss Relationship In A Streetcar Named Desire Sinsulacra. Extrapolating from the refrain from Marx' s The Poverty of Philosophy, if "the handmill gives yeats when you are old society with the feudal lord; the steam mill, society What Is Duboiss Relationship In A Streetcar Named Desire the industrial capitalist," the factory clock tower gives you society with the industrial soverign. Reed argues that "Bartleby's What Is Duboiss Relationship In A Streetcar Named Desire fate is another lesson in capitalism, one Bartleby himself never learns. This competition is like that of the marketplace, where what is involved is a What Is Duboiss Relationship In A Streetcar Named Desire over cost-prices and sales-prices, and not between complex human beings.